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Session 9: Geological Natural Hazards. These sessions will introduce the basic natural processes, historical geographic ranges, and potential impacts of the natural hazards that are not as unique to the coastal zone. (Source: USGS). Session 9: Geological Hazards

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Session 9: Geological Natural Hazards


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slide1

Session 9: Geological

Natural Hazards

These sessions will introduce the basic natural processes, historical geographic ranges, and potential impacts of the natural hazards that are not as unique to the coastal zone.

(Source: USGS)

Session 9: Geological Hazards

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 9. 1, Lecture Outline

slide2

Introduction: Geological Hazards in the Coastal Zone

  • Coastal Hazards can be defined as natural hazards that occur within the coastal zone. The hazards discussed in Sessions 8 and 9 can happen in the coastal zone, but occur in other locations as well.
  • The following geological natural hazards will be discussed in this session:
  • Earthquakes
  • Volcanoes
  • Landslides
  • Subsidence
  • Dam Failures

(Source:http://www.es.ucsc.edu/~hyperwww/subsidence.jpg)

(Source:http://www.geosurv.gov.nf.ca/images/minjpg/volcano.jpg)

Session 9: Geological Hazards

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 9. 2, Introduction

slide3

What is an Earthquake?

(Source: FEMA)

(Source: USGS)

(Source: www. gpsinfo.ru/news/ 2003_1/images/earthquake.jpg)

(Source: NASA)

Tectonic activity can result in motion and cracks on the earth’s surface along many coastlines

(Source: USGS)

Session 9: Geological Hazards

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 9. 3, Earthquakes

slide4

What is a Volcano?

Types of volcanic eruptions include:

  • Icelandic
  • Hawaiian
  • Strombolian
  • Vulcanian
  • Vesuvian
  • Pelean

May 17, 1980

  • Mount St. Helens before, during and after its May 18, 1980 Pelean-type eruption
  • Volcanoes are often found in coastal areas

1983

May 18, 1980

(Source: USGS & NASA)

Session 9: Geological Hazards

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 9. 4, Volcanoes

slide5

What is a Landslide?

(Source: http://www.sheehanpipeline.com/images/landslide.jpg)

(Source: USGS)

Landslides (also called Debris Flows) occur when masses of rock, earth, or debris move down a slope

Session 9: Geological Hazards

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 9. 5, Landslides

slide6

What is Subsidence?

The results of subsidence, mine collapse, and sink holes are similar

(Source: http://www.dnr.state.oh.us/geosurvey/geo_fact/geo_f12.htm)

World view of subsidence in large cities

(Source: www.mhhe.com)

Session 9: Geological Hazards

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 9. 6, Subsidence

slide7

What is a Dam Failure?

http://simscience.org/cracks/movies/superman.mov

Use the link provided above to watch a simulation of a dam failure.

Dam failures are the result of structural weakening that causes the dam to crack, allow water to enter the structure and eventually break through to release the water stored behind it.

(Source: http://simscience.org)

Session 9: Geological Hazards

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 9. 7, Dam Failure

slide8

Earthquake Disasters

(Source: FEMA)

  • Earthquakes can cause large amounts of fatalities and structural destruction. Over 60 people died in a single California earthquake in 1994.

(Source: http://www.sfmuseum.org/hist/pix49.html)

Session 9: Geological Hazards

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 9. 8, Earthquake Disasters

slide9

Volcano Disasters

(Source: USGS, http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Photo/Volcanoes/framework.html)

A volcano can destroy forests, property, infrastructure, and spread ash.

Session 9: Geological Hazards

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 9. 9, Volcano Disasters

slide10

Landslide Disasters

Landslides cause $ 1-2 million in damages each year in the US

(Source: Time)

(Source: USGS)

Session 9: Geological Hazards

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 9. 10, Landslide Disasters

slide11

Subsidence Disasters

(Source: http://www.sewerhistory.org/images/mi/mid/mid_spdwy01.jpg)

(Source: http://www.phillyblast.com/Allentown/sinkhole.htm)

Coastal zone subsidence will increase as coastal populations increase and groundwater aquifer supply decreases

(Source: USGS)

Session 9: Geological Hazards

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 9. 11, Subsidence Disasters

slide12

Dam Failure Disasters

Before and after photographs of the St. Francis Dam Break of 1928. This event killed 470+ people due to the 180-foot high wall of water that rushed forward into the Santa Clarita Valley of California.

(Source: http://www.scvhistory.com/scvhistory/stfrancis.htm)

Session 9: Geological Hazards

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 9. 12, Dam Failure Disasters