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Mobile Computing

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  1. Mobile Computing

  2. References • 1- Mobile Computing: Technology, Applications and Service Creation By: Talukder and Yavagal • 2- Mobile Computing Principles By: Reza B’Far • 3- Mobile-IP Design principles and Practices By: PerkinsT. • 4- Mobile Computing • By: Imielinski and H. Korth

  3. Topics 1- What is Mobile Computing? 2- Mobile computing Devices 3- Mobile Computing Architechture 4- Emerging Technologies 5- Communication Networks

  4. Mobile Computing: How and Where to? Lecture (1)

  5. What is Mobile Computing

  6. Definitions – Mobile Computing • What is mobile computing? • Computing that is not obstructed while the location of it changes Mobile computing = + ? • Mobile computing draws from • Wireless communications and networking • Ability to communicate via wireless links • Ubiquitous and pervasive computing • Ability to provide computing anywhere and anytime (ubiquitous), usually in a seamless manner, potentially not perceived (pervasive)

  7. So What is Mobile Computing? Computing on the go!! How do we achieve it? GO WIRELESS

  8. Wireless Communications First thing that comes in mind that has anything to do with wireless is … RADIO! • Radios are Listeners not Speakers ! • Radio signals received in Limited Area • Radios use various frequencies • Radio Communication is Analog • So HOW TO send • Digital data on {Analog / Digital} Signal?

  9. Wireless Communications • We need devices that • Can Transmit (Tx) & Receive (Rx) • Can Interpret Analog signal • Can convert Analog signal to Digital data • Can send and receive signal in some Area • Can connect to other devices in this Area • Can stay connected while moving • Would have “enough” bandwidth for Tx YES… We have them!

  10. Wireless Communications • Devices operate on various Frequencies • Two devices can “Talk” on same Frequency • Many devices need many frequencies Band of frequencies

  11. Ubiquitous, Mobile, Nomadic • Terminology not always consistent • Nomadic computing: “portable”; no mobility while connected • Mobile computing: “on-the-go”, e.g., while sitting on a train; possibility of network connections remaining open • Pervasive or Ubiquitous computing: • computing everywhere… OR • computers everywhere…most of them invisible

  12. How to achieve ubiquity? • Make computing available beyond desktop • Make it mobile and connected • Instrument the person • Instrument the physical surroundings

  13. Related areas • Pervasive computing • Wearable computing • Intelligent environments • Augmented reality • All will be referred to by umbrella term of Ubiquitous Computing (ubicomp)

  14. Computers Everywhere • Marc Weiser • Vision of ubiquitous computing: hundreds of computers per person, various sizes and capabilities • Tabs • very small--smart badge w/ user info, etc. • allow personalized settings to follow a user • leave bios behind at meetings • attached to virtually everything--e.g., books, car keys, etc.

  15. Reality • Some of Weiser’s H/W predictions • Large displays, a fraction of a centimeter thick, powered continuously for days on a small battery (no, no, no!) • 1GHz processors (yes, yes, yes) • 16MB of memory on a single unit (easy, memory is far cheaper than we could have imagined in 1991) • Several GB of storage easily available (yes: we’ve done better than this) • So, we’re behind in displays, batteries

  16. Advantages Convenience Boost productivity Communicate with others anywhere Access to electronic information Limitations Expensive Battery life Small screen display Slow Internet speed Mobile Computing: Is it Right for You?

  17. Mobile Computing Devices • Pagers • Cellular phones • MP3 players • Personal digital assistants • Tablet PCs • Laptop computers

  18. Comparing Mobile Devices

  19. Paging Devices • Small wireless devices that receive numeric messages (phone numbers) • Recent technological advancements enable: • Voice paging: • Receiving voice messages • Alphanumeric paging: • Receiving numeric and text messages • Two-way paging: • Receiving and sending text messages

  20. Cellular Phones • Full-featured communication and information storage devices • Features include: • Auto-redial • Call timers • Voice-mail • Voice-activated dialing • Internet access • Text messaging • Personal information management

  21. Cell Phone Hardware • Microprocessor (CPU): • Coordinates data between components • Runs the operating system • Memory: • ROM stores the operating system • Internal memory chips store: • Contact data • Ring tones • Images • Small application programs Memory Microprocessor

  22. Cell Phone Hardware • Input devices: • Microphone • Keypad • Graffiti pad • Touch-screen • Digital camera • Output devices: • Speaker • LCD display Speaker LCDdisplay Keypad Microphone

  23. Cell Phone Features • Text messaging: • Short Message Service (SMS): • Send messages up to 160 characters • Multimedia Message Service (MMS): • Send text, sound, images, and video clips • Internet connectivity: • Wireless Internet service provider • Maximum speed of 14.4 Kbps • Micro-browser software

  24. MP3 Players • MP3: • Format for storing music • MP3 player: • A small device that stores and plays music • Storage space determines the number of songs stored: • Memory chips 64 MB to 256 MB • Hard drive up to 40 GB • Sampling rate also affects number of songs stored

  25. MP3 Flash Memory • Used to add additional memory to MP3 players • Types of flash memory: • Compact Flash: • 64 MB to 1 GB • Multimedia (MMC) and SmartMedia: • 128 MB • Secure Digital: • 512 MB • Sony Memory Stick: • 128 MB

  26. Podcasting • Distributing non-music MP3 files over the Internet • Podcasts can be information, books on tape audio plays, etc • People can listen when they wish

  27. Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) • Small devices that store digital information • Known as palm computers or handhelds • PDA hardware includes: • CPU • Operating system • Storage capabilities • Input/output devices • Ports

  28. Input devices Touch-screen with stylus Keyboards: On-screen Integrated Folding Digital cameras Output devices LCD displays: Grayscale Color PDA Input and Output Devices

  29. PDA Processors • Popular processors: • Motorola DragonBall • Texas Instruments OMAP • Intel XScale • Comparing processors: • Speed • Performance: • Benchmarking • Power consumption

  30. Palm OS Uses less memory than Pocket PC Easy to use graphical interface Features include: Calendar To-do list Contact information Viewing Videos Playing MP3 files Extra application software is available Pocket PC Scaled-down version of Windows More expensive than Palm OS Features include: PDA version of Microsoft Word and Excel Viewing videos Playing MP3 files Extra application software is available PDA Operating Systems

  31. PDA Memory and Storage • ROM stores the operating system and the basic programs • RAM stores additional applications and data • Flash memory is used for additional storage

  32. PDA File Transfer and Synchronization • PDA files can be transferred to a desktop using: • Flash card readers • Cradles • Synchronizing updates files on both the PDA and desktop • Wireless transfers: • IrDA • Bluetooth

  33. PDA Internet Connectivity • An Internet connection requires a wireless ISP • Web pages are accessed using Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) • Web clipping enables information from Web pages to be formatted for PDAs

  34. Standard software: To-do list Contacts manager Calendar Additional software: Microsoft Word and Excel Games Tools References Blueboard: PDA display acts as a drawing board Connects to four other PDAs PDA Software and Accessories

  35. Converged Technologies • Cell phones with PDA capability • PDAs with cell phone capability • Handspring Treo • Sony Erricson P800

  36. Tablet PCs • Portable computers with handwriting recognition and speech recognition • Two monitor modes: • Laptop • Tablet

  37. Tablet PC Hardware • Tablet PC hardware includes: • CPU • Storage capabilities • Input/output devices • Ports • Digital ink technology: • Pressure sensitive screen • Digital pen

  38. Tablet Software • Windows XP Tablet PC is the operating system • Applications programs compatible with Windows XP are available

  39. Laptops • Also known as notebooks • Computing power of a desktop • Weigh 6 pounds

  40. Laptop Hardware • DVD/CD-RW drives • Hard drives • RAM • Hot-swappable bays: • Remove a drive and replace it with another type • Keyboard • Built-in mouse • LCD displays

  41. Laptop Operating Systems • Same operating systems as those found on desktops • Power management: • Shuts down the hard drive • Turns off the monitor • Puts the computer into standby mode

  42. Laptop Ports • A full set of ports: • Parallel • Monitor • USB • Modem • Ethernet • Audio jacks • FireWire • PCI type I/II card slots

  43. Lecture 1: Summary Questions • What are the advantages and limitations of mobile computing?

  44. Lecture 1: Summary Questions • What are the various mobile computing devices?

  45. Lecture 1: Summary Questions • What can pagers do?

  46. Lecture 1: Summary Questions • How do cell phone components resemble a traditional computer and how do cell phones work?

  47. Lecture 1: Summary Questions • What can I carry in an MP3 player and how does it store data?