PCD—Birth Defects Objective 3.01 Heredity and Environment Influences on Prenatal Development & Long-term Effects on the Health of Children.
FACTS • About 150,000 babies are born each year with birth defects. • 1 out of 28 parents receive frightening news that their baby has a birth defect. • There are over 4,000 known birth defects • Birth defects are the leading cause of death in the first year of life.
What is a Birth Defect? An abnormality of structure, function or body metabolism present at birth that results in physical or mental disability or is fatal (deadly).
Prenatal Development • Influenced by conditions brought on by the environment and hereditary traits. • For some of these influences, there are also birth defects and long-term effects that affect the health of the child. • A birth defect is an abnormality that is present at birth that affects the structure or functions of the body and may threaten a baby’s health and/or welfare.
Environment vs. Hereditary • Prenatal Development is influenced by conditions brought on by the Environment & Hereditary Traits. • For some of these influences, there are also birth defects and long-term effects that affect the health of the child.
Potential Causes of Birth Defects • Directions: • Read Chapter 4. • Complete the chart on the handout provided using Chapter 4 Section 3 in the textbook, page 124-125. • Pick 8 of the 10 Birth Defects • List the following in the rectangle: • Causes • Detections • Treatments
Environment • Complete the next slides on the bubble map labeled: Environmental Influences
Inadequate (not enough) Nutrition of Mother • Stunt brain dev. • Mental retardation • Increased risk: • multiple birth defects • low birth weight
Rubella, or German measles • 1st trimester of pregnancy can cause severe birth defects • Blindness • Deafness • Heart disease • Mental retardation
Toxoplasmosis • Parasite causes: • Blindness • Hearing loss • Learning disabilities • Death • Found in cat litter and some raw meats
Chicken Pox • During 1st half of pregnancy: • Scarring of baby’s skin • Limb (arms, legs) defects • Eye problems • Miscarriage • (death before 20th week)
STD’s • Can be passed to unborn child and can lead to: • Serious illnesses • Physical disabilities • Death
Nicotine Smoking Tobacco OR Secondhand Smoke • Smaller than average babies • Miscarriages and premature deliveries • Respiratory infections or allergies
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome(FAS) • 20% of infants die • Facial deformities • Delayed physical growth • Heart defects • Hyperactivity • Mental retardation or disabilities • Poor coordination • Difficulty controlling behavior
Drugs: Over-the-counter & illegal • Even over-the-counter drugs can potentially cause serious defects if taken during pregnancy • Nothing should be taken during pregnancy without doctor’s permission • Pass on drug addition to the baby • Makes it necessary for baby to go through painful withdrawal period after birth • Produces severe, long-term learning and behavioral problems • Large amounts of caffeine increase risk of miscarriage • Low birth-weight babies • Infant death • Cocaine increases risk of miscarriage • Produces strokes that lead to brain damage • Heart attack • Birth abnormalities • Death • Causes tremors, irritability, sleep problems, and developmental delays
Exposure to hazards • Chemicals • paint, pesticides, lead-based chemicals, carbon monoxide, mercury, solvents, paint thinners, and formaldehyde • Potentially cause physical and mental abnormalities in unborn baby • X rays can cause childhood cancer, miscarriages, and mental retardation • Toxoplasmosis • extreme high blood pressure
Accidental Injuries • Cerebral palsy • Caused by damage to the brain before, during, or shortly after birth • Damage to the developing embryo and fetus from accidental injuries of all types can potentially cause a wide range of birth defects
Complete the next slides on the bubble map labeled: • Hereditary Influences • Label left side of the paper: • Defective recessive genes inherited from both parents • Label right side of the paper: • Defective dominant gene inherited from one parent
Cystic Fibrosis • Caused by inheritance of recessive genes • More likely to affect Caucasians than African or Asian-Americas • Defective recessive genes inherited from both parents
Tay-Sachs Disease • Inherited disease most common among eastern European families of Jewish descent Defective recessive genes inherited from both parents
Sickle Cell Anemia • Malformed red blood cells that deprive the body of oxygen and prevalent in African-Americans Defective recessive genes inherited from both parents
Hemophilia • Passed on from mothers to sons only • Prevents blood from clotting • Defective dominant gene inherited from one parent
Huntington’s Disease • Manifests in adulthood males • Leads to dementia • Defective dominant gene inherited from one parent
Duchene Muscular Dystrophy • Transmitted by female carriers • Usually affects only males • Defective dominant gene inherited from one parent
Color Blindness • Usually affects only males • Defective dominant gene inherited from one parent
Errors in Chromosomes • Problems with the number or structure of chromosomes • Down syndrome • Associated with mental retardation • Increased risk of heart defects • Leukemia • Poor muscle tone • Distinctive physical characteristics • Defective dominant gene inherited from one parent
Heart Defect • Inherited • Drug use • Virus during pregnancy
Cleft lip/cleft palate • Gap in upper lip or palate
Cleft Palate Sometimes the roof of the mouth does not completely close, leaving an opening that extends into the nasal cavity. The cleft may include either side of the cavity. The abnormality may be associated with cleft lip or other syndromes.
Cleft Lip Incomplete formation of lips during fetal development leads to Cleft Lip abnormality. The extent varies from mild to severe. The clefts can be distinguished into unilateral clefts and bilateral clefts
Spina Bifida and Hydrocephalus Risk can be reduced by taking folic acid during pregnancy
Multiple Births • The hyper-ovulation gene may be inherited from the mother • Leading to fraternal twins • Primarily influenced by environment • Twin-to-twin syndrome (TTTS) • Result of one twin taking nourishment from the other • Fertility drugs
What potentially causes birth defects? • Genetic and environmental factors • 60% of birth defects are currently unknown • A single abnormal gene
Can birth defects be prevented? • Potential causes of most birth defects are not known, there are a number of steps a woman can take to reduce her risk
Help Reduce Risk • Visit a health care provider for a pre-pregnancy check up • especially if you have health problems • When pregnant, take daily multi-vitamins, containing B-vitamin folic acid. • Avoid: • Alcohol • Drugs • Smoking • prescription or over-the-counter medications without Dr. permission!
Can some birth defects be diagnosed before birth? • Prenatal tests that can be administered: • Ultrasound • Amniocentesis • Chronic villus sampling
Preventing Birth Defects Avoid… • Poor nutrition • Alcohol • Smoking • Drugs • STDs • Rubella • Parasites • Radiation
Experiment • Crack an egg in a glass jar. • Fill jar halfway full of rubbing alcohol. • Observe changes to the egg. • Write on a sticky note how seeing the changes affects their thinking. • Discussion what each item represents and how it relates to a birth defect.
Simon Birch1 hour and 53 minutes • A movie about a very small person; he has a lot of faith and self-confidence in spite of the fact that he is physically "different", he has little family support and he has health problems.
Birth Defect Group ProjectDirections • You will receive a birth defect to investigate • Make aware your findings using a blog on the Internet. • https://www.blogger.com/start • References can come from your notes, textbook, and Internet to find your references. • DO NOT COPY YOUR INFORMATION = PLAGERISM!!!!! • Classify your birth defect: • “Environmental” • “Hereditary” • “Both” • Blog should describe the following: • Description • Causes • Detection • Treatment • How it affects the person who has it
Reminders Good websites to use: www.kidshealth.org • No plagiarism • Not too wordy • Need at least 3 references • The Developing Child, Page ______ • www._____________.com • Third choice is your choice (can be another website or notes) • Post 3 pictures to illustrate your birth defect • Email me your final BLOG