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CRYSTAL DEFECTS. Description & importance. FUNDAMENTALS. Metals are not perfect neither at the macrolevel and nor at the microlevel Contain a number of different types of crystalline defects (at the atomic level) Defects are important in many processes e.g. diffusion, deformation.

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crystal defects

CRYSTAL DEFECTS

Description & importance

fundamentals
FUNDAMENTALS
  • Metals are not perfect neither at the macrolevel and nor at the microlevel
  • Contain a number of different types of crystalline defects (at the atomic level)
  • Defects are important in many processes e.g. diffusion, deformation
types of defects
TYPES OF DEFECTS

A. POINT DEFECTS OR ZERO-DIMENSIONAL DEFECTS

In pure metals

In alloys

1. VACANCY

2. SELF-INTERSTITIAL

1. SUBSTITUTIONAL IMPURITY

2. INTERSTITIAL IMPURITY

Important in strengthening

Important in diffusion

b line defects or one dimensional defects
B. Line defects or one-dimensional defects

Edge dislocation

Screw dislocation

VERY IMPORTANT IN PLASTIC DEFORMATION

c planar surface defects or two dimensional defects
C. Planar (surface) defects or two-dimensional defects

1. Stacking Fault

Perfect stacking

Extrinsic stacking fault

Intrinsic stacking fault

A

A

A

A

B

B

A

A

A

A

B

B

B

B

A

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

B

B

B

B

A

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

B

B

A

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

B

B

B

B

A

A

A

A

d volume defects or three dimensional defects
D. Volume defects or three-dimensional defects

Some scientists classify grains as volume defects

some basics on alloys
Some basics on alloys
  • Two types

Compounds

E.g. Fe3C, CuAl2

Solid solutions

Substitutional

Solid solution

E.g. Brass (Cu-Zn)

Cu-10%Zn or Cu-30%Zn

Interstitial

Solid solution

E.g. Steel (Fe-C)

Fe-0.2%C or Fe-0.4%C

Cu

Zn

Fe

C