Possible Birth Defects An outline of the negative outcomes of pregnancy and childbirth
Spina Bifida (Latin term which means "split spine“) • Term definition • Spina bifida (SB) is a neural tube defect (a disorder involving incomplete development of the brain, spinal cord, and/or their protective coverings) caused by the failure of the fetus's spine to close properly during the first month of pregnancy. Infants born with SB sometimes have an open lesion on their spine where significant damage to the nerves and spinal cord has occurred. Although the spinal opening can be surgically repaired shortly after birth, the nerve damage is permanent, resulting in varying degrees of paralysis of the lower limbs.
Spina Bifida Statistics • Statistics • Spina bifida occurs in seven of out every 10,000 live births in the United States. • The average total lifetime cost to society for each infant born with spina bifida is approximately $532,000 per child. This estimate is only an average and for many children the total cost may be well above $1 million.1 Estimated annual medical care and surgical costs for persons with spina bifida in the United States exceed $200 million. • Spina bifida has been found to occur more frequently in certain areas of the US, such as the Southwest and Southeast. • Sources • CDC http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/folicacid/folicfaqs.htm • National Birth Defects Prevention Network • http://www.nbdpn.org • More information on statistics and outcomes here: • http://www.sbaa.org/atf/cf/%7B99DD789C-904D-467E-A2E4-DF1D36E381C0%7D/SB_stats_for_MEDIA.pdf?docID=1941
Down Syndrome Term Definition • mongolism: a congenital disorder caused by having an extra 21st chromosome; results in a flat face and short stature and mental retardation • A condition caused by an extra chromosome in the fetus. This extra chromosome causes characteristic facial features and a lower IQ.
Down Syndrome Details & Examples Statistics • 40 to 50% of children with Down syndrome have congenital heart defects in the US (Association for Children with Down Syndrome) 80% of Down syndrome cases occur in mothers under 35 in the US Having Down syndrome increases the risk of leukaemia 15-20 times in the US • Characteristics
Video Clip Spina Bifida • http:www.goldbamboo.com/video-t1746.html// Down Syndrome