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Presentation Slides Courtesy Doug Wene and b100supply.com. Biodiesel Basics. Fatty Acid. Alcohol. Glycerin. What is Biodiesel?. Alternative fuel for diesel engines Made from vegetable oil or animal fat Meets health effect testing (CAA) Lower emissions, High flash point (>300F), Safer

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Biodiesel Basics


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what is biodiesel

Fatty Acid

Alcohol

Glycerin

What is Biodiesel?
  • Alternative fuel for diesel engines
  • Made from vegetable oil or animal fat
  • Meets health effect testing (CAA)
  • Lower emissions, High flash point (>300F), Safer
  • Biodegradable, Essentially non-toxic.
  • Chemically, biodiesel molecules are mono-alkyl esters produced usually from triglyceride esters

FA

FA

FA

FA

Biodiesel

Vegetable Oil

biodiesel can be used in existing diesel engines
Biodiesel can be used in existing Diesel Engines
  • Pure Biodiesel (B100) or blended with petroleum diesel (B20, BXX).
  • Rudolf Diesel: peanut oil.
  • Little or no engine modifications
  • Use existing fuel distribution network.
  • Available now
environmental issues
Environmental Issues
  • Burning fossil fuels increases atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide
  • Fossil fuels are a

finite resource

Biodiesel’s Closed Carbon Cycle

30% Increase

Graph taken from USF Oceanography webpage

relative greenhouse gas emissions
Relative Greenhouse Gas Emissions

B100

B100 = 100% Biodiesel

B20 = 20% BD + 80% PD

Electric

Diesel Hybrid

B20

Ethanol 85%

Diesel

LPG

CNG

Gasoline

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

Data from “A Fresh Look at CNG: A Comparison of Alternative Fuels”, Alternative Fuel Vehicle Program, 8/13/2001

slide6

Relative emissions: Diesel and Biodiesel

B100 **

B20

CO2

Diesel

Mutagenicity

n-PAHs

PAHs

Sulfates

**NOx

Particulate Matter

CO

Total Unburned HCs

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

Percent

** B100 (100% biodiesel) with NOx adsorbing catalyst on vehicle

slide7

How Is It Made?

Vegetable Oil

+

Alcohol

+

Lye

Biodiesel

Warn about Peanut Oil Allergy - Filter the WVO – Mix the Lye w/ MeOH - Play Mixing Methoxide Video

chemistry of triglycerides
Chemistry of Triglycerides
  • Biodiesel is made from the combination of a triglyceride with a monohydroxy alcohol (i.e. methanol, ethanol…).
  • What is a triglyceride? Made from a combination of glycerol and three fatty acids:
transesterification while actually a multi step process the overall reaction looks like this
TransesterificationWhile actually a multi-step process, the overall reaction looks like this:

CH2OOR1 catalyst CH2OH

|  |

CHOOR2 + 3CH3OH  3CH3OORx + CHOH

| |

CH2OOR3 CH2OH

Triglyceride 3 Methanols Biodiesel Glycerin

R1, R2, and R3 are fatty acid alkyl groups (could be different, or the same), and depend on the type of oil. The fatty acids involved determine the final properties of the biodiesel (cetane number, cold flow properties, etc.)

slide10

THE PROCESS OF MAKING BIODIESEL IN 2 LITER SODA BOTTLE

  • MIX WARM VEGETABLE OIL, ALCOHOL AND LYE TOGETHER AND THEN ALLOW THE MIXTURE TO STAND. THE LIQUIID SEPARATES INTO:
  • BIODIESEL Fuel(Primary Product)
  • GLYCEROL (Secondary Product)

Mix it together and start agitation

slide12

Pictorial by Graydon Blair of the Utah Biodiesel Cooperative

http://www.utahbiodiesel.org/biodiesel_making.html

not all processors are ugly
Not All Processors Are Ugly

They make their biodiesel in their vehicle

biodiesel challenges
Biodiesel Challenges
  • Cold Weather Operation (Chemistry)
  • Producing enough feedstock oil to replace a large portion of petroleum (biology, chemistry, physics, economics)
  • Engine and emissions optimization (chemistry, physics)
what about the waste
What About the Waste?
  • Home Brewers (like me) use the waste Glycerin for making bar soap, hand soap and liquid degreaser.
  • Commercial plants sell their glycerin as an animal feed additive or distill it to 99+ purity and sell it for use in hand lotions and cosmetics.