Chapter Menu Chapter Introduction India’s First Civilization Hinduism and Buddhism India’s First Empires Chapter Assessment
Chapter Introduction 2 India’s First Civilizations People’s social status affects how they live.The earliest Indian civilization developed on the Indus River. Later, the Aryans arrived in northern India. A social system that determined how people lived evolved.
Chapter Introduction 3 Hinduism and Buddhism Religion shapes how culture develops, just as culture shapes how religion develops.India’s two main religions were Hinduism and Buddhism. These two religions affected every aspect of people’s lives.
Chapter Introduction 4 India’s First Empires Civilizations are strengthened by a variety of advances. Early India had two great empires: the Maurya and the Gupta. Both empires made advances in the arts, sciences, and math.
Section 1-Guide to Reading 1 In India, just as in Egypt and Mesopotamia, the first civilizations developed in fertile river valleys. • Climate and geography influenced the rise of India’s first civilization.(page 239) • For the Indian civilization, new ideas and technology developed. (page 242) • The Aryans created a caste system that separated Indians into groups.(page 243)
Section 1-Guide to Reading 2 Himalaya Ganges River Indus River Deccan Plateau Harappa Mohenjo-Daro Aryans Brahmins
Section 1-Guide to Reading 3 subcontinent raja monsoon caste Sanskrit guru similar individual
Section 1-Daily Lesson Notes 1 As dangerous as monsoon flooding can be, drought is much more devastating to the people of India. In 1770, the rains did not come, and a famine occurred because of the drought. About 10 million people died in Bengal, an Indian state.
I. TheLand of India(pages 239–241) Section 1-Daily Lesson Notes 2 A. India is a subcontinent because it is separated from the rest of Asia by the Himalaya, the highest mountains in the world. B. Today the Indian subcontinent holds six nations: India, Pakistan, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Sri Lanka. C. India has two fertile river valleys created by the Ganges River and the Indus River. D. A monsoon is a strong wind that blows one direction in winter and the opposite direction in summer. Monsoons bring rain in summer.
I. TheLand of India(pages 239–241) Section 1-Daily Lesson Notes 3 Click the map to view a dynamic version.
I. TheLand of India(pages 239–241) Section 1-Daily Lesson Notes 4 E. Early civilization arose near the Indus River after the river flooded and left fertile soil behind. This civilization started about 3000 B.C. and lasted until about 1500 B.C. F.Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro were large, well-planned cities in ancient India. G. The cities had wells, drains for wastewater, garbage chutes, and organized governments. The houses were made from baked mud bricks.
I. TheLand of India(pages 239–241) Section 1-Daily Lesson Notes 5
I. TheLand of India(pages 239–241) Section 1-Daily Lesson Notes 6 H. Most people were farmers. They grew wheat, barley, peas, and cotton. City dwellers were artisans who made jewelry, pottery, tools, and cloth. The Harappans traded their goods with people from other lands.
I. TheLand of India(pages 239–241) Section 1-Daily Lesson Notes 7 Why do archaeologists think that Harappan religion and politics were closely connected? The royal palace and the temple were enclosed in the fortress.
II. The Aryans(pages 242–243) Section 1-Daily Lesson Notes 8 A. The Aryans came from central Asia where they raised and herded cattle. Some historians believe they were part of a larger group referred to as Indo-Europeans. B. The Aryans were expert warriors and hunters. They had metal-tipped spears and wooden chariots. C. The Aryan civilization expanded into all of the Indian subcontinent except the southern tip of India. D. The Aryans became farmers but continued to raise cattle. The cattle were so important, the Aryans eventually declared them sacred.
II. The Aryans(pages 242–243) Section 1-Daily Lesson Notes 8 Click the map to view a dynamic version.
II. The Aryans(pages 242–243) Section 1-Daily Lesson Notes 9 E. The Aryans invented an iron plow and built canals to improve farming. F. The Aryans’ written language was called Sanskrit. G. Aryan tribes were led by a raja, or prince.
II. The Aryans(pages 242–243) Section 1-Daily Lesson Notes 10 Why were cattle such a prized possession? They provided meat, milk, and butter and were used as money.
III. Society in Ancient India(pages 243–245) Section 1-Daily Lesson Notes 11 A. A caste is a social group that someone is born into and cannot change. B. The Aryans believed in four classes, called varnas. The top two varnas were Brahmins, or priests, and Kshatriyas, or warriors who ran the government and army. The next class included common people, such as merchants and farmers. Below them were laborers and servants. The lowest level did not belong to any varna. These people, called the Untouchables, did work others did not want to do.
III. Society in Ancient India(pages 243–245) Section 1-Daily Lesson Notes 12
III. Society in Ancient India(pages 243–245) Section 1-Daily Lesson Notes 13 C. Men had more rights than women. D. Typically, only sons could inherit property. Only men were allowed to go to school or become priests. A boy from the top of society was often taught by a guru. E. Parents arranged marriages, and divorce was not allowed.
III. Society in Ancient India(pages 243–245) Section 1-Daily Lesson Notes 14 Under the caste system in India, what aspects of life were affected by a person’s caste? A person’s caste affected what job one had, who one married, and who one could socialize with.
Section 1-Section Review 1 • India’s first civilization, including the cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro, developed in the fertile Indus River valley. • The Aryans, a group of nomadic herders, arrived in northern India about 1500 B.C. They brought the iron plow and the Sanskrit language to India. • India’s caste system divided people into rigid social and economic classes. Ancient Indian society favored men over women.
Section 1-Section Review 2 1. Describe the cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro. The cities had wide streets and walled neighborhoods; mud brick houses around courtyards; public wells, sewage, and garbage disposal. 2. Why are monsoons important to Indian farmers? They cause soil-enriching floods.
(3) CA 6RC2.7 Section 1-Section Review 3 3. Cause and Effect Why did the Harappan civilization collapse? Harrappan civilization may have collapsed because of earthquakes, floods, the Indus River changing its course, and the Aryan invasions.
(4) CA 6RC2.4 Section 1-Section Review 4 4. Cause and EffectDraw a diagram to show how the Aryans changed the lifestyle of the Indians. Charts should reflect information in the text.
(5) CA 6RC2.3 (6) CA CS3. Section 1-Section Review 5 5. The Big Ideas In what ways did the caste system affect the people who lived in India? The caste system forced them into a fixed way of life and it limited their rights. 6. ExplainHow did the Aryans control people in India? Possible answers include a strong military and the effects of the caste system.
Section 2-Guide to Reading 1 Much of Indian civilization is based on Aryan ideas and culture, which you learned about in the last section. One of the most important and long-lasting contributions of the Aryans is the main religion of India, Hinduism. • Hinduism grew out of the ancient beliefs of the Aryans. (page 247) • A new religion, Buddhism, appealed to many people in India and other parts of Asia. (page 249)
Section 2-Guide to Reading 2 Nepal Tibet Siddhartha Gautama Dalai Lama
Section 2-Guide to Reading 3 Hinduism karma Brahman Buddhism reincarnation nirvana dharma theocracy affect area require aware
Section 2-Daily Lesson Notes 1 In 1949, the country of Tibet was invaded by China. China still occupies Tibet and tries to expel Tibetan Buddhism. Tibetans who fail to denounce their religion or possess an image of the Dalai Lama, their religious leader, are punished.
I. Hinduism(pages 247–248) Section 2-Daily Lesson Notes 2 A.Hinduism, the world’s third-largest religion, is one of the oldest religions. B. Hinduism began with the Aryan religion, which changed after borrowing ideas from conquered people of India. C. Brahman is the universal spirit made up of thousands of deities. D. The Upanishads are ancient sacred texts that describe the search for Brahman.
I. Hinduism(pages 247–248) Section 2-Daily Lesson Notes 3
I. Hinduism(pages 247–248) Section 2-Daily Lesson Notes 4 E.Reincarnation is the idea of passing through many lives to reach Brahman. F.Dharma is the divine law of Hindus. This law states that Hindus must perform the duties of their caste. G. The consequences of how a person lives are called karma.
I. Hinduism(pages 247–248) Section 2-Daily Lesson Notes 5 According to Hindus, what are the consequences of a good and a bad life? Hindus believe if a person lives a good life, then that person might be reborn into a higher caste. If the person lives a bad life, then the person might be reborn in a lower caste.
II. Buddhism(pages 249–253) Section 2-Daily Lesson Notes 6 A.Buddhism is a religion founded by Siddhartha Gautama, the man who became known as the Buddha, or “Enlightened One.” B. Siddhartha Gautama was a prince who left his family and wealth to travel. In his travels, he saw much suffering and questioned the need for suffering. Legend tells he meditated under a tree for 49 days, and then he understood. For the rest of his life, Siddhartha traveled to tell people about his discovery.
II. Buddhism(pages 249–253) Section 2-Daily Lesson Notes 7 C.Nirvana, a state of wisdom, occurs when a person gives up all desires. D. The core of Buddha’s teaching is called the Four Noble Truths. The Eightfold Path describes the steps to eliminate suffering. E. Buddhism divided into Theravada Buddhism and Mahayana Buddhism. Theravada Buddhists believe the Buddha was a great teacher, not a deity. Mahayana Buddhists believe the Buddha was a deity who came to save people.
II. Buddhism(pages 249–253) Section 2-Daily Lesson Notes 8 F.Tibet is a country in central Asia where Mahayana Buddhism mixed with traditional Tibetan religion and Hinduism to create a special kind of Mahayana Buddhism. G. In Tibet, religious leaders, called lamas, headed the government. The Dalai Lama was the government leader, and the Panchen Lama was the religious leader. H. A theocracy is a form of government in which religious leaders head the government.
II. Buddhism(pages 249–253) Section 2-Daily Lesson Notes 9 I. Jainism is another religion that challenged Hinduism. Jains believe in nonviolence to all living creatures and live a strict life. Ahimsa, the Jain practice of nonviolence, has influenced many people in modern times, including Mohandas Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr.
II. Buddhism(pages 249–253) Section 2-Daily Lesson Notes 10 Why was Buddhism popular with people of lower castes? Buddha taught that a person’s life depended on the person, not the caste into which the person was born. He believed that a person could stop being reborn by following the Eightfold Path. This gave people in the lower caste hope.
Section 2-Section Review 1 • Hinduism is an old religion with many deities. Hindus believe in reincarnation and that a person’s place in life is determined by his or her karma. • In the 500s B.C., Siddhartha Gautama founded the religion of Buddhism in northern India. According to Buddhism, a person who follows the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path can achieve nirvana.
Section 2-Section Review 2 1. What are the Upanishads? The Upanishads are ancient sacred texts that describe the search for a universal spirit. 2. What is reincarnation? Reincarnation is passing through many lives.
(3) CA 6RC2.4 Section 2-Section Review 3 3. Compare and Contrast Draw a chart like the one below. Then add details to compare the two main branches of Buddhism. Theravada: Buddha is a great teacher; Mahayana: Buddha is a god; Eightfold Path is too hard; worship Buddha instead
(4) CA HI2. (5) CA HR4. Section 2-Section Review 4 4. Analyze How has ahimsa influenced people today? Modern leaders used nonviolence to bring about change. 5. Explain What is the importance of the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path? The Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path summarize the Buddha’s teachings.
(6) CA HI3. Section 2-Section Review 5 6. The Big Ideas How did the belief in reincarnation strengthen the caste system and provide hope for the lower classes? One’s position in society results from past acts. Lower classes hoped to improve their position in a future life.