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Splash Screen

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  1. Splash Screen

  2. Introduction Section 1:Earth-Sun Relationships Section 2:Factors Affecting Climate Section 3:World Climate Patterns Summary Chapter Menu

  3. Geographers study how people, places, and environments are distributed on Earth’s surface.Climate affects where and how people live. An understanding of Earth’s climates and the factors, both physical and human, that influence them adds to a more complete view of life on Earth. Chapter Intro 1

  4. Section 1: Earth-Sun Relationship How does Earth’s position in relationship to the sun affect life on Earth? Chapter Intro 2

  5. Climate and Weather The relationship between the Earth and the sun affects climate, which influences life on Earth in dramatic ways. • Earth’s tilt is one reason for variations in sunlight. • The angle of tilt affects the temperature, which is measured in Fahrenheit or Celsius. • Earth rotates on its axis, making one complete rotation from west to east every 24 hours. Section 1

  6. Climate and Weather (cont.) • While Earth is rotating on its axis, it is also traveling in an orbit around the sun—this revolution takes 365 days to complete. • The Earth’s revolution and tilt cause changes in the angle and amount of sunlight that reach different locations on the planet, also known as seasons. Effects of Earth’s Tilt Section 1

  7. Figure 1

  8. Climate and Weather (cont.) • The Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn • When the sun’s rays directly strike the Tropic of Cancer, this marks the beginning of summer in the Northern Hemisphere. • When the sun’s rays directly strike the Tropic of Capricorn, this marks the beginning of winter in the Northern Hemisphere. Section 1

  9. Earth-Sun Relationships A. Tropic of Cancer B. Tropic of Capricorn Section 1-GTR

  10. Climate and Weather (cont.) • The Poles • At the North Pole, the sun never sets from about March 20 to September 23. • At the South Pole, the sun never sets from about September 23 to March 20. The Earth’s Seasons Section 1

  11. Figure 2

  12. A B C D The imaginary line running from the North Pole to the South Pole through the planet’s center is known as which term? A.Equator B.Solstice C.Axis D.Equinox Section 1

  13. A B C D The imaginary line running from the North Pole to the South Pole through the planet’s center is known as which term? A.Equator B.Solstice C.Axis D.Equinox Section 1

  14. The Greenhouse Effect The natural process of the greenhouse effect has been influenced by human activity. • Like the glass in a greenhouse, the atmosphere traps some heat and keeps it from escaping back into space too quickly so that the Earth is warm enough to maintain life. Section 1

  15. The Greenhouse Effect (cont.) • Many scientists claim that in recent decades a rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels has coincided with a general rise in global temperatures, also known as global warming. The Greenhouse Effect Section 1

  16. Figure 3

  17. Section 2: Factors Affecting Climate What factors can affect how climates are distributed on Earth’s surface? Chapter Intro 3

  18. Factors Affecting Climate A. low latitudes B. high latitudes C. Arctic Circle D. Antarctic Circle E. midlatitudes Section 2-GTR

  19. A B C Factors Affecting Climate Think about Question Where is the most variable weather on Earth is found in which zone? A.Low latitude zone B. High latitude zone C.Midlatitude zone Section 2

  20. Latitude, Elevation, and Climate Latitude and elevation affect the angle of the sun’s rays and temperatures on Earth. • Low latitudes include the Tropic of Capricorn, the Equator, and the Tropic of Cancer. • The Earth’s polar areas are considered the high latitudes. Section 2

  21. Latitude, Elevation, and Climate (cont.) • Midlatitudes: • Between 30 degrees N and 60 degrees N in the Northern Hemisphere, and between 30 degrees S and 60 degrees S in the Southern Hemisphere, are considered the midlatitudes. • The most variable weather is found here. Section 2

  22. Latitude, Elevation, and Climate (cont.) • Elevation: • At all latitudes, elevation influences climate because of the relationship between the elevation of a place and its temperature. • As elevation increases, temperature decreases. The Influence of Elevation on Temperature Section 2

  23. Figure 4

  24. A B Why does thinner air retain less heat? Section 2

  25. Winds and Ocean Currents Wind and water combine with the effects of the sun to influence Earth’s weather and climate. • Wind Patterns: • Wind blows because of temperature differences on Earth’s surface, with tropical air moving toward the Poles and polar air moving toward the Equator. Section 2

  26. Winds and Ocean Currents (cont.) • Global winds blow in fairly constant patterns called prevailing winds. • The Coriolis effect causes prevailing winds to blow diagonally rather than along strict north-south or east-west directions. World Zones of Latitude and Wind Patterns Section 2

  27. Figure 5

  28. Winds and Ocean Currents (cont.) • The Horse Latitudes: • When sailors became stranded in the doldrums, they would lighten the load of the ships, including livestock, so that a light breeze could move them. • These areas then became known as the horse latitudes. Section 2

  29. Winds and Ocean Currents (cont.) • Ocean currents are caused by factors such as: • the Earth’s rotation • changes in air pressure • differences in water temperature • The Coriolis effect is observed in ocean currents as well. • Ocean currents affect climate in the coastal lands along which they flow. World Ocean Currents Section 2

  30. Figure 6

  31. Winds and Ocean Currents (cont.) • Weather and Water Cycle • Wind and water work together to affect weather—driven by temperature, condensation creates precipitation • El Niño can influence climates around the world. The Influence of El Niño Section 2

  32. Figure 7

  33. A B C D Review Question A periodic change in the pattern of ocean currents, water temperatures, and weather in the mid-Pacific region is known as which term? A.Doldrums B.Current C.Prevailing Winds D.El Niño Section 2

  34. Landforms and Climate Landforms and bodies of water influence Earth’s climate patterns. • The climate of places located at the same latitude can be very different, depending on the presence or absence of certain physical features. • Coastal areas tend to have less changeable weather than do inland areas. • Mountain ranges have varyingweather, depending on the areaof the mountain. The Rain Shadow Effect Section 2

  35. Figure 8

  36. Section 3: World Climate Patterns How do geographers classify Earth’s climate and vegetation? Chapter Intro 4

  37. World Climate Patterns A. Tropics B. Sahara Section 3-GTR

  38. A B C World Climate Patterns Discussion Question Which climate would you prefer to live in? A.Tropical climate B.Dry climate C.Midlatitude climate Section 3

  39. Climate Regions Geographers divide the Earth into regions that have similar climates. • Each of these divisions has its own characteristic soils and natural vegetation. Latitude, Climate, and Vegetation Section 3

  40. Figure 9

  41. Climate Regions (cont.) • Climates are organized into five regions: • Tropical climates—these are found in or near the low latitudes—the Tropics. • Tropical wet • Tropical dry Section 3

  42. Climate Regions (cont.) • Dry climates—there are two types of dry climates—the desert and the steppe—which occur in low latitudes or midlatitudes. • Midlatitude climates—this climate experiences variable weather patterns and season changes that give rise to a variety of natural vegetation. World Climate Regions Section 3

  43. Figure 10

  44. Climate Regions (cont.) • There are four temperate climate regions: • Marine west coast climate • Mediterranean • Humid subtropical • Humid continental Section 3

  45. Climate Regions (cont.) • High altitude climates—freezing temperatures are common throughoutthe year because of the lack of direct sunlight. • Three high altitude climate regions are: • Subarctic • Tundra • Ice cap Section 3

  46. Climate Regions (cont.) • Highland climates—high mountain areas, even along the Equator, share some of the same characteristics because of the thinning of the atmosphere at high altitudes. World Natural Vegetation Regions Section 3

  47. Figure 11

  48. A B C D Review Question Which type of climate is the least arid? A.Tundra B.Desert C.Rain forest D.Mixed forest Section 3

  49. Climate Changes Climate changes over time. Although the causes of change are unclear, evidence suggests that human activity has influenced some of the changes. • Burning fossil fuels releases gases that mix with water in the air, forming acids that fall in rain and snow. • This act can cause many changes in climate. • Dams and river diversion can also affect climate. Section 3

  50. Earth-Sun Relationships • The relationship of the Earth to the sun affects climate patterns around the world. • The Earth’s tilt and revolution cause the seasons by changing the relationship of the Earth’s surface to the sun. • When the sun is directly over the Tropic of Cancer it is summer in the Northern Hemisphere. When it is directly over the Tropic of Capricorn, it is winter in the Northern Hemisphere. VS 1