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Signal Transduction Mechanisms. Chemical Messengers and Receptors. Cell Signals. What kinds of environmental factors do cells respond to?. Chemical Signals. What is the difference between hormones and parcrine factors?. Signal Transduction. What elements are involved in cell signaling?.

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Signal transduction mechanisms

Signal Transduction Mechanisms

Chemical Messengers and Receptors


Cell signals
Cell Signals

  • What kinds of environmental factors do cells respond to?


Chemical signals
Chemical Signals

  • What is the difference between hormones and parcrine factors?


Signal transduction
Signal Transduction

  • What elements are involved in cell signaling?


Signal transduction1
Signal Transduction

  • What is the difference between a hydrophilic and a hydrophobic messenger?

  • What kinds of substances fall into each of these categories?


Signal transduction2
Signal Transduction

  • What exactly do we mean by signal transduction?


Signal transduction3
Signal Transduction

  • What is true about the attachment between ligand and receptor?

  • What is meant by receptor affinity?

  • What is Kd?


Signal transduction4
Signal Transduction

  • What is meant by receptor down regulation?

  • Why is a knowledge of receptor function so important?


G protein linked receptors
G Protein-Linked Receptors

  • What is a G protein?

  • What does this type of receptor look like?



Structure of g proteins
Structure of G Proteins

  • Why are many G proteins considered heterotrimeric?



G proteins
G Proteins

  • What are some of the effects of activated G proteins?




Cyclic amp1
Cyclic AMP

  • How does c-AMP act as a second messenger in the cell?


Cyclic amp2
Cyclic AMP

  • What are some of the observed effects of c-AMP in cells?


Cyclic amp3
Cyclic AMP

  • What do the organisms that cause cholera and pertusis have in common?


G proteins1
G Proteins

  • Besides c-AMP what other second messengers depend upon G proteins?


G proteins2
G Proteins

  • How is inositol triphosphate and diacylglycerol formed?



Inositol triphosphate diacylglycerol
Inositol Triphosphate & Diacylglycerol

  • What cell functions are regulated by these second messengers?


Calcium ions
Calcium Ions

  • How is the Ca+2 concentration in cells regulated?


Calcium ions1
Calcium Ions

  • How do we know that Ca+2 are involved in cell signaling mechanisms?


Calcium ions2
Calcium Ions

  • How does Ca+2 exert its effects in the cell?


Calcium ions3
Calcium Ions

  • What role does an increase in Ca+2 play in the development of animals?


Calcium ions4
Calcium Ions

  • What role does Ca+2 play in plant cell function?


Calcium ions5
Calcium Ions

  • How are G proteins involved in smooth muscle relaxation?


Protein kinase associated receptors
Protein Kinase Associated Receptors

  • What do all of these receptors have in common?


Tyrosine kinase receptors
Tyrosine Kinase Receptors

  • What do we know about the structure of these receptors?


Tyrosine kinase receptors1
Tyrosine Kinase Receptors

  • What are non-receptor tyrosine kinases?


Tyrosine kinase receptors2
Tyrosine Kinase Receptors

  • What happens when this receptor is activated?



Growth factors
Growth Factors

  • What are growth factors?



Fibroblast growth factor
Fibroblast Growth Factor

  • What role does this growth factor play in embryonic development?


Signal transduction mechanisms
TGF-╬▓

  • How does TGF-╬▓ differ from FGF?


Growth factors2
Growth Factors

  • What do these different pathways have in common?


Growth factors3
Growth Factors

  • In what way is cancer related to growth factors?


Hormones
Hormones

  • How do we differentiate an endocrine from a paracrine hormone?

  • between a paracrine hormone and a growth factor?


Hormones1
Hormones

  • What are some physiological functions controlled by hormones?



Adrenergic hormones
Adrenergic Hormones

  • In general, how do these hormones affect the body?

  • What are some of the specific effects of these hormones?


Adrenergic hormones1
Adrenergic Hormones

  • What kinds of receptors respond to these hormones?


Adrenergic hormones2
Adrenergic Hormones

  • On what tissues do we find ╬▒ receptors?

  • ╬▓ receptors?


Adrenergic hormones3
Adrenergic Hormones

  • What are some of the cell functions regulated by epinephrine via the c-AMP pathway?


Adrenergic hormones4
Adrenergic Hormones

  • How specifically does epinephrine influence the breakdown of glycogen?


Adrenergic hormones5
Adrenergic Hormones

  • In what way do the ╬▒ and ╬▓ receptors act antagonistically?

  • How are responses to hormones coordinated?


Paracrine hormones
Paracrine Hormones

  • What does histamine do and why is it important


Paracrine hormones1
Paracrine Hormones

  • What role do prostaglandins play in blood clot formation?


Cell signaling and apoptosis
Cell Signaling and Apoptosis

  • How is apoptosis different from necrosis?


Cell signaling and apoptosis1
Cell Signaling and Apoptosis

  • How are caspases related to apoptosis?