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Chapter 11: Physical Development in School-Age Children. 11.1 Growth of the Body 11.2 Motor Development 11.3 Children with Special Challenges. 11.1 Growth of the Body. Physical Growth Nutrition Tooth Development Vision. Physical Growth. Growth continues at steady pace

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chapter 11 physical development in school age children
Chapter 11: Physical Development in School-Age Children
  • 11.1 Growth of the Body
  • 11.2 Motor Development
  • 11.3 Children with Special Challenges
11 1 growth of the body
11.1 Growth of the Body
  • Physical Growth
  • Nutrition
  • Tooth Development
  • Vision
physical growth
Physical Growth
  • Growth continues at steady pace
  • Boys and girls about the same size most of these years until girls enter puberty in late elementary school
  • Some short children may receive growth hormones, but this has negative effects

11.1 Growth of the Body

nutrition
Nutrition
  • School-age children need to eat more than preschoolers
  • Children need to eat breakfast before school
  • Parents need to be involved in the treatment of juvenile obesity

11.1 Growth of the Body

tooth development
Tooth Development
  • Beginning at 5 or 6 years, loss of primary teeth occurs at a rate of 4 teeth per year
  • Fluoride in toothpaste and drinking water helps prevent tooth decay
  • Malocclusion can be treated by orthodontia

11.1 Growth of the Body

vision
Vision
  • Growth of eustachian tube helps reduce incidence of ear infections (otitis media)
  • Myopia occurs in approximately 24% of school-age children
  • Myopia usually emerges between 8 and 12 years
  • Both heredity and environment contribute to myopia

11.1 Growth of the Body

11 2 motor development
11.2 Motor Development
  • Growth of Motor Skills
  • Physical Fitness
  • Participating in Sports
  • Accidents
growth of motor skills
Growth of Motor Skills
  • Improved motor skill due to increased size and strength (e.g., at 11 years can throw ball 3 times farther than at 6 years)
  • Girls excel in fine-motor skills and gross-motor skills that require balance and flexibility
  • Many gender differences due to attitudes about girls’ sports participation

11.2 Motor Development

physical fitness
Physical Fitness
  • Most school children in U.S. are not physically fit
  • Children often spend much time standing around in phys ed classes
  • Many children engage in sedentary leisure activities (e.g., TV, computer games)

11.2 Motor Development

participating in sports
Participating in Sports
  • Sports help children be physically fit, teach cognitive and social skills
  • Both boys and girls believe sports enhance self-esteem, teach skills and cooperation, and provide physical activity
  • Coaches should be positive and have realistic expectations

11.2 Motor Development

accidents
Accidents
  • Car accidents (as passenger or pedestrian) and bike accidents are most common causes of injury and death
  • Parents can help by being good role models (seat belts, bike helmets) and by being realistic about child’s abilities
  • Safety often the focus of community and school programs

11.2 Motor Development

11 3 children with special challenges
11.3 Children with Special Challenges
  • Children with Learning Disabilities
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
  • Children with Mental Retardation
children with learning disabilities
Children with Learning Disabilities
  • Children with learning disabilities have normal intelligence, but have difficulty mastering academic material
  • Many different learning disabilities so difficult to diagnose and many different treatments

11.3 Children with Special Challenges

attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
  • Show a combination of overactivity, inattention, and impulsivity
  • More common in boys than girls
  • Often treated with stimulant drugs, instructions on regulating behavior, and parent training

11.3 Children with Special Challenges

children with mental retardation
Children with Mental Retardation
  • Only 25% organic mental retardation, majority are familial mental retardation
  • Down Syndrome most common organic cause
  • The most severe forms are less common
  • 90% are mildly or educably retarded

11.3 Children with Special Challenges