The Development of Language. Chapter 9 Language and Communication. How do we develop the ability to communicate?. Module Objectives: What are the elements of speech? How do children develop speech? How do children learn the meaning of words?.
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Language and Communication
What are the elements of speech?
How do children develop speech?
How do children learn the meaning of words?
It could be argued that infants DO communicate with others, but do not have language
-Phonology refers to the sounds of a language
Children must learn to hear the differences in speech sounds and how to produce them; they must learn the meaning of words and rules for combining them into sentences and they must learn effective ways to talk with others
Infants use many tools to identity words in speech. They don’t understand the meaning of the word yet, but they can recognize a word as a distinct configuration of sounds
Think on your own…
In what distinctive way do adults talk to infants? How can this help infants master the language?
Adults speak slowly and with exaggerated changes in pitch and loudness and elongated pauses between utterances
When talking to girls, adults use more words like “doggie” and “blankie” whereas with boys, adults use more words like “dog” and “blanket”. Girls hear twice as many diminutives.
What about children who cannot hear?
By the age of 2 most children have a vocabulary of a few hundred words, and by age 6 the vocabulary includes over 10,000 words!
After children know that objects have names, a gesture is a convenient substitute for pronouns like “it” or “that” and often cause the adult to say the object’s name
The rate of children’s vocabulary development is influenced by the amount of talk they are exposed toThe more speech that is addressed to a toddler, the more rapidly the toddler will learn new words
Answer the following questions on you own.
This is a snurk. It walks on its flaxes. How many flaxes does a snurk have?
Snurks have twice as many flaxes as ampolinks. Where are the amopolinlks?
Snurks are covered with garslim. Garslim is like __________?
Like dogs, snurks can wag their pangeers. Where is the pangeer?
Do you think snurks can bispooche? Why or why not?
These questions put you back in toddlers shoes listening to adults speak. Like toddlers, you all must rely on context to comprehend the strange vocabulary to describe the snurk.
In absence of adequate context, comprehension is impossible (as you experienced in question #5).
Sarah refers to the blanket she sleeps with as “blankie”. When Aunt Ethel gives her a new blanket Sarah refuses to call the new one a “blankie” – she restricts that word only to her original blanket.
“More cookie”, “Mommy go”, “Daddy juice”, “Sue dogs”
There are several theories that attempt to explain how we develop language
What factors influence effective communication?
How Do Our Emotions Develop?