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Chapter 15: Work Tests to Evaluate Cardiorespiratory Fitness. EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY Theory and Application to Fitness and Performance, 5 th edition Scott K. Powers & Edward T. Howley Presentation revised and updated by TK Koesterer, Ph.D., ATC Humboldt State University. Objectives.
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Chapter 15:Work Tests to Evaluate Cardiorespiratory Fitness EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY Theory and Application to Fitness and Performance, 5th edition Scott K. Powers & Edward T. Howley Presentation revised and updated by TK Koesterer, Ph.D., ATC Humboldt State University
Objectives 1. Identify sequence of steps in the procedures for evaluating cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) 2. Describe one maximal and one submaximal field test used to evaluate CRF 3. Expalin the rationale underlying the use of distance runs as estimates of CRF 4. Identify commom measures taken during a graded exercise test (GXT) 5. Describe changes in the ECG that may take place during a GXT in subjects with ischemic heart disease
Objectives 6. List three criteria for having achieved VO2 MAX 7. Estimate VO2 MAX from the protocol that may affect that estimate 8. Estimate VO2 MAX by extrapolating the HR/ VO2 relationship to the person#s age-adjusted maximal HR 9. Describe the problems with the assumptions made in the extrapolation procedure, and name the environmental and subject variables that must be controlled to improve such estimates
Objectives 10. Identify criteria used to terminate the GXT 11. Explain why there are so many different GXT protocols and why the rate of progression through the test is of concern 12. Describe the YMCA‘s procedure to set the rate of progression on a cycle ergometer test 13. Estimate VO2 MAX with the Åstrand and Ryhming nomogram given a data set for the cycle ergometer or step
Testing Procedures • Sign consent form • Screening • PAR-Q • Resting and exercise measures • HR & BP • Cholesterol • ECG • GXT or field test
Field Tests for Estimating Cardiorespiratory Fitness • Use natural activities • Walking, running, or stepping • Can test large numbers of people at low cost • Physiological responses may be difficult to measure • Motivation plays an important role in test results
Maximal Run Tests • Measure how far a person can run in a set time or how fast they can run a set distance • Cooper’s 12-minute run and 1.5 mile run • AAPHERD’s 1-mile run/walk • VO2max estimates based on the linear relationship between running speed and oxygen cost of running
Walk Tests • Requires only simple measurements • Walking time • HR • VO2max is based on: • Age, weight, sex, time, and HR • As fitness improves, HR and/or time will be lower • Results in higher estimated VO2max
Canadian Home Fitness Test • Uses 8-inch steps to evaluate cardiorespiratory fitness • Measure HR after 3 minutes of stepping • Stop if it exceeds maximum allowable HR based on age • Continue for another 3 minutes if it is below maximum allowable HR • Fitness level is based on post-exercise HR
Graded Exercise Tests:Measurements • Heart rate • By palpation, ECG, or monitor • Blood pressure • By auscultation • ECG • Can diagnose arrhythmias or ischemia • Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) • Subjective measure of fatigue • ACSM guidelines
GXT:Termination Criteria ACSM’s Guidelines for Exercise Testing & Prescription • Onset of angina (chest pain) • Drop in systolic BP with increasing work rate • Excessive rise in BP (>260/115 mmHg) • Dizziness, ataxia, confusion, pallor • Failure of HR to rise with work rate • Noticeable change in heart rhythm • Subject requests to stop • Severe fatigue • Failure of testing equipment
VO2 MAX • The gold standard measure of cardiorespiratory fitness • Estimation from last work rate • Use equations to calculate estimated VO2max • Estimation from submaximal heart rate • Extrapolate measured submaximal HR to age-predicted maximal HR to estimate VO2max • Careful measurement of HR is required
Estimation of VO2max From Submaximal HR Response • The test is stopped when the subject reaches 85% of maximal HR • A line is drawn through the HR points measured during the test and is extrapolated to the age-adjusted estimate of maximal HR • Another line is dropped down from that point to the x-axis, and the VO2max is identified
Graded Exercise Test: Protocols • Consideration of the population tested • Submaximal vs. maximal test • Starting work rate • Rate of change of work rate • Mode of exercise • Treadmill • Cycle ergometer • Step test
Treadmill • Use natural activities • Walking and running • Can accommodate a wide range of subjects • Least fit to most fit • Estimating VO2max • Based on extrapolating submaximal HR
Cycle Ergometer • Body weight is supported • Can accommodate subjects with orthopedic limitations • Estimating VO2max • Based on extrapolating submaximal HR • YMCA protocol
Step Test • Simple, inexpensive equipment • Protocols differ in: • Step height • Step rate • Estimating VO2max • Based on extrapolating submaximal HR