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Minnesota Wing Aircrew Training: P-2002, P-2003, P-2004, P-2005 CAP Related Safety Requirements Types of Flights Security Concerns and Procedures Mission Pilot Responsibilities during a Mission
Flying into and taxiing on unfamiliar airports • Small, non-towered, unlighted airports • Runways • Taxiways • Obstacles • Services • Local NOTAMS
Flying into and taxiing on unfamiliar airports • Larger, busy airports • Airspace and obstacles • Taxiways • Local NOTAMS • A/FD or Flight Guide (Airguide Publications, Inc.) • Download airport diagrams (AOPA web site) • Taxiing around a large number of aircraft at mission base • Taxi plan • Marshallers • If it looks too close or dangerous – STOP!
SQUAWKS • Use the Discrepancy Log, especially in unfamiliar aircraft • Don’t let ‘minor’ squawks linger: • Lights and bulbs • Radios and navaids • Keep aircraft windscreen and windows clean
Fuel Management • Maintain a sufficient fuel supply to ensure landing with one hour of fuel remaining (computed at normal POH/AFM cruise fuel consumption). • If it becomes evident the aircraft will not have that amount of fuel at its intended destination, the PIC will divert the aircraft to an airport that will ensure this reserve is met. • Have a plan • Accurate Weight & Balance, accurate fuel levels
Fuel Management (con't) • Note your assumptions and brief crew: • Power setting • Wind direction and speed • Leg and total flight distance • Compare assumptions against actual conditions • Modify plan and refuel, if necessary • Check fuel status at least hourly • Have observer verify fuel status each hour as a double check • When in doubt – land and refuel!
Unfamiliar aircraft equipment • Audio Panel, FM Radio, DF, GPS – if you don’t know it, don’t fly it! • Even simple differences can matter: • If you’ve never flown an HSI, now isn’t the time to learn it! • Sit in the aircraft and get up to speed • Get another pilot to tutor you • What does the equipment and gear in the baggage compartment weight? W&B. • Don’t try to bluff
Unfamiliar terrain and weather • Plan for terrain and weather: • Enroute • Area you’ll be operating in • Clothing, equipment and survival gear
Trainees & Inexperienced Crew • Trainees: • Extra time on briefing, duties & responsibilities • When not to interrupt (sterile cockpit) • Inexperienced crew (or not proficient): • Extra time on briefing • May have to assume some duties • Check 101 cards or SQTR’s • Flight line marshallers may be cadets or seniors on their first mission • Be alert and have your crew stay alert
Low and Slow • 1000 feet AGL for extended periods of time is typical • May be less than 90 knots (no less than Vx) • Include in your proficiency flying • Strictly enforce sterile cockpit rules • May lose radar and communications coverage • Climb to report “ops normal” • Maintain situational awareness • “If the engine quits now, where do I land”
Low and Slow (Con’t) • Maintain a minimum of 500 feet above the ground, water, or any obstruction within a 1000' radius during daylight hours, and a minimum of 2000' AGL at night (except for takeoff and landing or under ATC control). • For SAR/DR/CD/HLS reconnaissance, the PIC will maintain at least 800 AGL. • Pilots may descend below the designated search altitude to attempt to positively identify the target (but never below 500 AGL); once the target has been identified the pilot will return to 800' AGL or higher. • Maintain airspeed above Vx (typically 90 kts)
TRANSPORTATION FLIGHTS • Always consult CAPR 60-1, Chapter 2 (Authorized Passengers) when you need to know who is authorized to fly as passengers in CAP aircraft and the conditions under which they are authorized to fly • As a general rule, anyone other than CAP or US government employees need special permission to fly in CAP aircraft • All non-CAP members eligible to fly aboard CAP aircraft must execute a CAPF 9, Release (for non-CAP Members), prior to the flight.
FAR Exemptions(60-1 Attachment 2) • CAP is under the FARs, but has obtained exemptions in two areas: • FAR Part 61 – Reimbursement of Private Pilots • FAR Part 91, Subpart F – Large and Turbine Powered Multi-Engine Airplanes
NIGHT FLIGHT • Typically are transport, route searches and ELT searches • CAPR 60-1 requires pilots to maintain a minimum of 2000' AGL at night (except for takeoff/landing or when under ATC control). During night over-water missions, both front-seat crewmembers must be CAP qualified mission pilots and both will be instrument qualified and current (the right-seat pilot need not be qualified in the specific aircraft). • Must be night current and its preferable to have an experienced crew aboard • Extra attention to the pre-flight and other preparations • Weather reports and advisories • Dew point spread (fog predictor) • Greatest threat isflying into weather you can’t see
NIGHT FLIGHT • Before you launch, ask yourself a few questions: • Are you really night proficient, or did you last fly 89 nights ago? • How long has it been since you’ve done a night cross-country? • How long has it been since you’ve done a night ELT search? • How long has it been since you’ve done night approaches? • When was the last time you practiced a night landing without a landing light? • How familiar are you with terrain and obstacles along the route? • Did you include all your flashlights in the weight & balance? • Include night flying (and DF) in your proficiency regimen!
ILLUSIONS OF THE NIGHT • Most significant contribution to fatal night accidents • Some lead to spatial disorientation while others lead to landing errors • Illusions are the most common (JFK Jr.) • The ‘leans’: enter a bank too slowly to stimulate the motion-sensing system of the inner ear • Coriolis • Graveyard spin or spiral • Inversion • Elevator • False horizon • Autokinesis
ILLUSIONS OF THE NIGHT • Surface conditions and atmospheric conditions can create illusions of incorrect height above and distance away from the runway • Prevent these illusions by pre-planning and by flying a standard approach to all landings: • Runway width • Runway and terrain slopes • Featureless terrain • Atmospheric • Ground lighting
INSTRUMENT (IFR) FLIGHT • CAP missions are seldom conducted in IMC • Most likely is a transport flight (not to minimums) • Can do a route search, but ground teams are preferable under these circumstances • Can DF in IMC, but dangerous • Per CAPR 60-1, IFR flights will not depart unless weather is at or above the landing minimums at the departure airport.
INSTRUMENT (IFR) FLIGHT • Other requirements and recommendations: • PIC has section XIV, Instrument Proficiency, signed off on CAPF 91 • PIC meets FAA instrument proficiency requirements • PIC is proficient in the type of CAP aircraft she’ll be flying • For any flight other than a simple transport flight, its highly recommended that another instrument-proficient pilot fly in the right seat • Never fly a search in IMC alone • Never fly an IMC search if ground teams are available
VIDEO IMAGING • An increasing important CAP mission • Real-time and near real-time images are invaluable to emergency response personnel • Primarily: • Digital still photos (some 35mm) • Video (analog and digital) with or without audio comments • Slow Scan video
VIDEO IMAGING • Essentials for a successful video imaging sortie: • Ensure everyone knows what the target is and what types of images are needed • Ensure you know how to find the target, and brief the route and video flight patterns to be used • Ensure frequencies are understood and agreed upon • Define the duties of the PIC and the photographer; the photographer will actually be in charge during the shoot • Ensure video equipment is working and that you have plenty of fresh batteries and film (media) • Clean the window, even if you plan to open them for the shoot • For Slow Scan, make sure everything is connected properly; make a test transmission before you leave the ground
PROFICIENCY • CAPR 60-1 Attachments (C1 & B12) • Practice search patterns, with and without GPS • Practice at night • In-flight emergencies and maneuvers will be conducted in daylight VMC at an altitude high enough to allow recovery from an inadvertent stall/spin entry and complete a recovery no lower than 1500’ AGL or the aircraft manufacturer’s, FAA or CAP approved training syllabi recommended altitude, whichever is higher. • Simulated forced landings will be discontinued prior to descending below 500’ AGL (unless you intend to land)
PROFICIENCY • With the GPS, practice: • Maintaining a constant track over ground • Select/display destinations • Determine heading, time and distance to a waypoint • Save lat/long coordinates as a User Waypoint • Save your present position as a waypoint, call it up & rename • Enter and use flight plans • Exercise the nearest airport and VOR features • Practice navigating with ‘present position’ (lat/long) displayed • Take someone with you! Good for them and more fun!
SECURITY CONCERNS & AIRSPACE RESTRICTIONS • Heightened security concerns and the potential for flight restrictions are now part of our world • CAP’s role in Homeland Defense will require greater attention to aircraft, aircrew and airport security
Security Concerns • CAP resources should be considered national security assets • Special security precautions must be taken to protect aircraft and other resources: • hangar the aircraft whenever possible. May place small pieces of clear tape (that will break) on fuel caps, the cowling and/or doors to detect tampering. • Pay extra attention during pre-flight inspections and look for signs of fuel contamination • Be as “low-key” as possible; don’t draw unnecessary attention to yourself or discuss CAP business in public • Be aware of your surroundings at all times
Airspace Restrictions • FAA may issue Temporary Flight Restrictions (TFRs) at any time. May establish an ADIZ (see AIM Section 6). • Ask for FDC NOTAMS before each flight; if security is heightened, check them before each leg. • Even without heightened security, avoid loitering or circling sensitive areas: • Power plants (especially nuclear) • Reservoirs and dams • Government installations • Large stadiums or gatherings of people, air shows • If you need to circle one of these structures for training, coordinate with the facility and ATC first. • Monitor 121.5 MHz
In-flight Interception • Know how to respond (AIM 5-6-2) • An intercept has three phases: • Approach • Identification • Post-intercept • If intercepted you should immediately: • Follow the instructions of the intercepting aircraft • Notify ATC, if possible • Attempt to communicate (121.5 MHz) • Squawk 7700 unless told otherwise
Phases of FlightMission Pilot Perspective • Covered in general in Chapter 13 for scanners/observers • Checklist in Attachment 2, Flight Guide • Always follow the aircraft checklists; right-seat should read each item and you acknowledge • First, an often overlooked asset – the glove box: • Small laminated sheets for crew and passenger briefings, crosswind chart, PA card (like CD), FM frequencies and callsigns, ELT deactivation stickers, and GPS cheat sheet • Small cleaning cloth (like for glasses) to clean instrument faces • Pencil/pen/grease pencil • Backup flashlight • Check periodically and purge non-essential stuff
Prior to Startup • Familiarize yourself with the aircraft paperwork: • Engine, prop, airframe, and avionics logbooks • Can you tell when the oil change is due? Next 100 hour/Annual? When the 24-month instrument certifications are due? • Other checks: • Due date on CO monitor and Fire Extinguisher inspection • ELT battery due date • Last VOR check (within 30 days of instrument flight) • Fill out the flight log; double-check Hobbs & Tach times • Check the squawk sheet and make sure none of the entries make the aircraft unsafe for flight or reduce mission readiness
Documents andMinimum Equipment • Certificates and documents: • Airworthiness and Registration certificates • Operating limitations • Passengers’ credentials • Minimum Operable Equipment (FAR 91 Subpart C): • VFR Day, VFR Night, IFR • FAR 91.213 to determine if you can take off with inoperable equipment • Other CAP requirements (CAPR 66-1 & CAPF 71): • Review of logbooks, W&B data • Restrictive placards • Pulselite, Avionics/Control Lock, Fire extinguisher, CO detector, cargo net, chocks and tie-downs, survival kit
W&B, Loading and Pre-start • Weight & Balance: • Use accurate weights of passengers and all equipment • Note all fuel assumptions (fuel burn, winds aloft, etc.) • Ensure adequate fuel reserve (one hour at normal cruise) • Loading: • Ensure equipment, crew weights and supplies correspond to your W&B assumptions • Charts and maps • Windows clean (modify for video imaging mission) • Check and test special equipment • Parking area clear of obstacles • Pre-start • Passenger briefing, emergency egress procedure • Brief fuel management and taxi plan/diagram • Enter settings into GPS
Startup • Aircraft checklists: • Always use them (habit) and keep them close at hand • Seat belts, and shoulder harness at or below 1000 AGL • Startup: • Ensure DF, FM radio & Audio Panel properly set up • Rotating Beacon ON and signal marshaller • Lean the engine after starting (> 3000 DA) • Set up radio and navigation instruments
Taxi Mishaps • Becoming a bigger problem each year • #1 trend in CAP • Pilots are: • straying from designated taxi routes • not allowing adequate clearance and not considering the tail and wings during turns • taxiing too fast for conditions and taxiing with obscured visibility • distracted by cockpit duties • not using other crewmembers to ensure clearance
Taxi Mishaps • Strategies: • Thorough planning and preparation eliminates distractions • Crew assignments for taxi • If within ten feet of an obstacle, stop, and then taxi at a pace not to exceed a “slow walk” until clear • Do not follow other taxiing aircraft too closely (e.g., 50 feet behind light aircraft; 100 feet behind small multi-engine and jet aircraft; 500 feet behind helicopters and heavies) • Use proper tailwind/headwind/crosswind control inputs • Treat taxiing with the seriousness it deserves • Sterile cockpit rules
Taxi • Collision avoidance! Follow CAPR 60-1 requirements for taxi operations. Read back taxi/hold-short. • Review crew assignments for taxi, takeoff, & departure • Sterile cockpit rules are now in effect • Remind crew that most midair collisions occur: • Daylight VFR • Within five miles of an airport (especially un-controlled) • At or below 3000 AGL • Signal marshaller before taxi, test brakes
Takeoff, Climb and Departure • Takeoff: • Collision avoidance! Check for landing traffic. • Cross-wind limits (POH or 15 knots, whichever is less) • High density altitude – lean for full power before takeoff • Climb: • Collision avoidance! • Lean (burn gas; not valves) • Use shallow S-turns and lift wing before turns to check traffic • Departure: • Collision avoidance! Keep crew apprised of conflicts. • Sterile cockpit rules can be relaxed when clear • Organize the cockpit, review assignments, set up for next task • Check fuel status and altimeter setting hourly
The Search Area • Transit: • In none assigned, use odd altitudes during transit to minimize chance for midair collision • Cross military training routes perpendicular. If you see one fighter, look for the wingman • Double-check settings and review methods to reduce crew fatigue or high altitude effects • Update weather, file PIREP, review procedures • Approaching the search area: • Review assignments • Check navigational instruments against each other • Stabilize aircraft at least two miles out • Exterior lights on
The Search Area • In the search area: • Log and report “In the Search Area” • Log deviations from assigned search parameters • Hourly updates of altimeter (closest source) and fuel status • Limit time spent below 800 AGL (no lower than 500 AGL during daylight; 2000 AGL at night) • Airspeed > Vx, typically 90 kts • Monitor yourself and crew for fatigue and high altitude effects • Departing the search area: • Log and report “Leaving the Search Area;” reorganize cockpit • Double-check heading and altitude assigned to transit to next search area or return to base • Reorganize the cockpit
Approach, Decent and Landing • Approach: • Get ATIS/AWOS, review airport/airspace diagram, taxi plan • Sterile cockpit rules are now in effect • Collision avoidance! Lights on within 10 miles of airport. • Decent: • Collision avoidance! Shallow S-turns and lift wings before turns • Richen mixture as you reduce power • Landing: • Read back all clearances and hold-short instructions • Defer after-landing check until off the active • Remember to “fly the plane ‘till you shut off the engine” • Taxi back per taxi plan, watch for Marshallers • At engine shutdown, show Marshaller the keys, install chocks