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Minnesota Wing Aircrew Training: Tasks P-2028

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Minnesota Wing Aircrew Training: Tasks P-2028. Crew Resource Management. Purpose: Understand attitudes and skills that allow each crewmember to participate as part of the team

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crew resource management
Purpose:Understand attitudes and skills that allow each crewmember to participate as part of the team

Properly trained aircrew members can collectively perform complex tasks better and make more accurate decisions than the single best performer on the team.

An untrained team's overall performance can be significantly worse than the performance of its weakest single member.

Crew Resource Management
crew management goals
Maximize human performance

Understand group dynamics

Assess, mitigate, and manage risk

Manage workload to avoid task saturation or complacency

Improve communication inside and outside flight deck

Maintain situational awareness

Crew Management Goals
human performance
Human Performance
  • Managing Fatigue
    • Scanning is physically demanding work
      • Consider using search pattern turns as opportunities to stretch muscles
    • Duty day rules apply to scanners and observers as well as pilots (CAPR 60-1)
      • 14 hour duty day max
        • Duty Day is defined as beginning when reporting to work or the CAP activity, whichever occurs first. It ends at engine shut down.
      • 8 scheduled flight hours within a duty day max
      • Under no circumstances will flight time exceed 10 hours
      • 10 hours rest between duty days minimum
other human performance factors
Other Human Performance factors
  • Turbulence
  • Heat / Cold
  • Light / Contrast
  • Boredom
  • Empty Field Myopia
group dynamics
Types of authority / Leadership styles


Hazardous Attitudes






Get There It-us

Group Dynamics
the error chain
The Error Chain
  • A series of event links that, when considered together, cause a mishap.
  • Should anyone of the links be “broken,” then the mishap will not occur.
  • It is up to each crewmember to recognize a link and break the error chain.
workload management
Workload Management
  • Little things can make a difference
    • Help the pilot manage charts, checklists, etc.
    • Manage the CAP radio
  • Consider when to apply sterile flight deck discipline
  • Think ahead
    • use idle time to prepare for next busy activity
improved communication
Improved Communication
  • Entire crew should participate in briefings and debriefings if possible
    • Otherwise the pilot should thoroughly brief the team
  • Pilot should plan sorties with the participation of the aircrew
  • Don’t be afraid to volunteer information in the air and on the ground
  • Don’t be afraid to ask relevant questions
situational awareness keeping a mental picture of what is happening and about to happen
Situational AwarenessKeeping a mental picture of what is happening and about to happen
  • Don’t’ fixate, scan the big picture
  • Project ahead and consider contingencies
  • Rotate attention between the crew, the plane (current situation), and the path ahead
  • Speak up when you see SA breaking down
task saturation
Task Saturation
  • Too much information at one time
  • Too many tasks to accomplish in a given time
  • Usually occurs when an individual is confronted with a new or unexpected situation. Loses SA.
regaining situational awareness
Regaining Situational Awareness
  • Reduce workload: Suspend the mission.
  • Reduce threats:
    • Get away from the ground and other obstacles (e.g., climb to a safe altitude).
    • Establish a stable flight profile where you can safely analyze the situation.
  • Remember: “Aviate, Navigate, Communicate”
how do we get it back
How do we get it back?
  • Trust your gut feelings
  • “Time Out,” “Abort,” or “This is Stupid.”
    • Pilot establishes aircraft in a safe and stable configuration, and then discuss the problem
  • Sterile Cockpit
    • Limit talk to the minimum necessary for safety.
    • Taxi, takeoff, departure, low-level flying, approach, landing
assignment of duties
Assignment of Duties
  • CAPR 60-3
  • Flight-related -- aircraft commander
  • Mission-related -- mission commander
crew coordination
Crew Coordination
  • Understand and execute your assignments
  • Communicate
  • Question
  • Pay close attention to all briefings.
  • Understand the “big picture.”
  • Watch for task overload in yourself and other crewmembers.
  • 67% of air transport accidents occur during 17% of the flight time - taxi, takeoff, departure, approach and landing. Keep casual conversation and distractions to a minimum during these phases of flight.
  • Begin critical communications with instructions, then explain.
  • Successful missions hinge on each and every crewmember
  • Learn how to use the procedures and tools available to you, and use them correctly
  • Never stop learning
  • Don’t be afraid to ask questions
  • Never criticize someone for asking questions
  • Anyone can call “Time Out,” “Abort,” or “This is Stupid”
  • Practice, practice, practice!