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HIS 101. Final Exam Review. ID’s and Sigs. Know the 5 W’s Who, what, where, when, why (&) How did __ ? __ effect/impact society?. Which block was the term in?. Knowing which block the term was in gives a general idea of what the term is intended for. The four blocks are:

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his 101

HIS 101

Final Exam Review

id s and sigs
ID’s and Sigs

Know the 5 W’s

Who, what, where, when, why


How did __?__effect/impact society?

which block was the term in
Which block was the term in?
  • Knowing which block the term was in gives a general idea of what the term is intended for. The four blocks are:
  • 1. What is a Civilization?
  • 2. Religion
  • 3. Maintaining order / Population control
  • 4. Warfare
block1 what is a civilization
(Block1) What is a civilization?
  • This block involves terms that dealt with the structure in which the civilization came about reaching a hierarchy.
  • The process of reaching it was: rivers, food, population, cities, specialization, hierarchy.
block 2 religion
(Block 2) Religion
  • In this block, different religions provide guidance on moral, religious, political, and social issues. These traditions often shape the values of people who have made laws and implemented policies.
block 2 the 5 religions
(Block 2) The 5 Religions
  • The religions that were discussed in 101 are:
  • Buddhism
  • Hinduism
  • Judaism
  • Christianity
  • Islam
block 3 maintaining order population control
(Block 3) Maintaining Order / Population Control
  • This block attempts to solve the problem of unifying when societies are confronted with challenges of administering territory, maintaining order, and organizing daily life.
block 4 warfare
(Block 4) Warfare
  • This block contains both internal and external conflicts that lead to some form of war. Internal conflicts include civil wars and rebellions. External conflicts include competition for resources and territorial aggression.
tigris and euphrates
Tigris and Euphrates
  • The two rivers most important to the development of Mesopotamian society. Surrounding the “fertile crescent” they provide a means of water supply to the arid region by means of artificial irrigation. The growth of crops such as barley, wheat and peas supported the population growth and was essential to the expansion of their society.
equal field system
Equal-Field System
  • The governed allocation of land in China. Ensured equal distribution of land to avoid social dispute. Land was allotted according to need. Representative of a strong central government because the people trusted them enough to handle such sensitive affairs and obeyed the laws accordingly. This was a direct reflection of the government’s power.
theme system
Theme System
  • System developed during Byzantine civilization to stop the reduction of the empire from the invasions of the expansive Islamic state. Land was divided into sections ruled by a general who was in charge of military and civil affairs. Army in these areas was mainly comprised of free peasants who received land in exchange for military service. This was an effective way of boosting the Byzantine economy and maintaining social order. When the theme system was at it’s best, so what Byzantium. However, when the system began to collapse the empire suffered severely.
amon re
  • A Religious cult in Egyptian society that worshipped the Thebian deity Amon and the god Re at Heliopolis. Amon was closely associated with creation, fertility ad reproductive forces whereas Re was a sun god. These two gods tie into to agriculture and population growth and show us the importance of religion in Egyptian civilization.
veneration of ancestors
Veneration of Ancestors
  • Idea that ancestors still played a significant role in societies affairs. This was most apparent in Chinese culture because praying to one’s ancestors for wants and needs and seeking guidance from those beyond the grave was common practice.
aztec bloodletting
Aztec Bloodletting
  • The letting of blood from mainly from sacrificial victims, to please the gods. The Aztecs believed that through human sacrifice the blood was believed to provide the necessary moisture for the ground in order to maintain agricultural growth. Priest would also practice this, however, it would be in a non-life threatening manner such as piercing the body. Sacrificial victims were one of the primary objectives of Aztec warfare.
  • The social activist method of maintaining order in China following the period of the Warring States. Named after its founder, Kong Fuzi (Confucius), it sought to maintain order by means of proper order of relationships. Felt authority should be given to those who were both well educated and conscientious. Promoted high ethical standards and was more of a practical approach to handling endeavors.
justinian code
Justinian Code
  • Code developed after reviewing Roman laws and compiling them into the Corpus iuris civilis (Body of the Civil Law). This was the first time that laws had been organized into cases and it has influenced much of the civil law codes in the west .
five pillars of islam
Five Pillars of Islam
  • Pillars established by the prophet Mohammad in the Islamic religion. Acknowledge Allah as only god and Mohammad as His messenger, pray to Allah daily, observance of Ramadan, contribute alms to weak and poor and make a pilgrimage to Mecca the axis mundi of the religion.
  • A bi-product of the Columbian Exchange in which one would develop sores all over their body which led to massive death rates in the New World. Because the American natives possessed no immunity for this disease, like many others, the death toll began to rise amongst their population.
seven year s war
Seven Year’s War
  • Escalation of commercial violence led to this war. It was fought over control of the sugar islands between the French and the English after the invasion of the English trading post in Madras, India by the French and also fought between the English pirates and Spanish vessels. These conflicts developed into what is known as a global war. In North America this war would eventually merge with the French and Indian War (1754-1763)
columbian exchange
Columbian Exchange
  • Global diffusion of everything. Importing and exporting of goods on a global level that led to the spread of an extensive diversity of flora, fauna and disease. One example of this is smallpox.
  • Main source water for agricultural development and trade in Egypt. The Egyptians would take advantage of the Nile’s annual floods by sow their seeds in late summer on the soft soil. They also used a mechanism called a shaduf to bucket water out of the Nile and water their crops. In addition to the agricultural advantages, the Nile served also as a trade route. By boat you could ride the current to the north to Lower Egypt and sail south by using the prevailing winds in order to return back to Upper Egypt. Trade was essential because the Nile did not provide many natural resources.
fast ripening rice
Fast-Ripening Rice
  • A crop that was encountered in Vietnam during the Chinese Resurgent Era. It produced two crops instead of one annually and easily took to the fields in southern China. With the production of more food this allowed for one farmer to supply man which in turn gave the Chinese the opportunity to specialize in areas such as porcelain, develop the movable type and the accidental discovery of gunpowder by Chinese alchemists.
  • Enormous plantations established on conquered lands in the Rome by the patricians. Because of the constant dispute between them and the lower-class plebeians this caused and escalation of tension between the two. The patricians would put the smaller plebeian businesses out of work due to the advantages of slave labor. Eventually people like Tiberius and Gaius Gracchi would work to limit the amount of conquered land an individual could hold.
caste system
Caste System
  • System of extreme social hierarchy in India based mainly around one’s inherited occupation. It derives its foundation from the Aryan and Dravidian assimilation and the belief that the Hindu god Pruja was sectioned off into four parts that represented each caste. What caste you were born in was what caste you remained in for the duration of your life with the rare exception that you were a member of a jati and moved up in social standing as a group.
  • Formerly known as Saul, a zealous Pharisee was one of Jesus’ twelve disciples. During his travel to Damascus he encountered God and converted to Christianity and became known as Paul. One of the greatest the greatest theologians of early Christianity, Paul spread the message of salvation beyond the “chosen people” to the Gentiles. His education as a Pharisee allowed him to be more effective in ways like writing epistles (letters of encouragement) to Christian churches. During his travels, which were mainly to larger politically influential cities, he gained numerous converts that would erect churches for the Christian faith.
  • The form of government that brought the Chinese dream of unification to fruition after the period of the Warring States. Focused primarily on strengthening the state and discouraged any type of learning and self-interest that was not beneficial to the government. Severely strict way of maintaining order in a society. Primarily carried out by Qin Dynasty.
  • Greek philosopher and protégé` of Plato. Rejected Plato’s theory of forms and ideas and used rules of logic to construct compelling arguments. Wrote on the studies of biology, physics and literature. Hi rules of logic would later have a profound affect on Christianity.
  • Another Greek philosopher and teacher on Aristotle. Developed the theory of forms and ideas. Any extreme supporter of intellectual enthusiasm, he proposed that rule should be given to philosopher-kings and those of lower intellect should work according to their talents.
joint stock companies
Joint-Stock Companies
  • Trading system that first presented during early European exploration that enabled investors to realize profits while taking little risks in investments. Examples of this were the English East India Company and Dutch United East India Company.
royal road
Royal Road
  • Road that stretched 1,600 miles from Ephesus to Sardis established during the Persian Empire. The police and a place to stop and rest via the Inns located in various areas along the way ensured traveling caravans protection lodging. Darius also set up a postal system along these roads with a 111 postal stations. These characteristics show us the centralization of the Royal Road system in Persia because of it’s many attributes of organization and control.
  • “conquerors” Spanish militants like Cortez and Pizarro that focused their attention on the American mainland and the area of what is now known as Mexico for the purpose of finding precious items such as gold to bring back to their own country. Cortez, in particular, starved the Aztec community at Tenochtitlan in surrender and Pizarro captured the Incan capital Cuzco.
inca roads
Inca Roads
  • All weather highway system that spread of 16,00 miles. These allowed for the government to maintain control of such a spread out territory. It allowed military forces to be quickly dispatched to an area and helped the central government maintain close supervision of trade. All these roads led back to the Incan capital city of Cuzco.
  • Ultimate achievement in the dharmic religion Buddhism where one escapes the cycle of rebirth and gains spiritual independence. In order to achieve this one must obey the four noble truths as well as the noble eight-fold path established by Siddartha Gautama.
  • Self-sufficient community in feudalism where the lords lived during medieval times in Europe, its self-sustaining attributes are due to its contained meadows, agricultural tools, domesticated animals and serfs for labor.
de gama
De Gama
  • Explorer from Portugal that opened the door for maritime trade between Europe and Asia. Sailed around the Cape of Good Hope and India in 1498. Discovered a route no longer involved Muslim merchants acting as middlemen with goods imported from Asia.
  • Hindu commentaries on the holy Hindu scriptures known as the Vedas. Reflections and dialogues that represented basic Hindu concepts. Upanishads or “sitting in front of” refers to Hindu disciples gathering together to discuss theological issues.
  • Axis Mundi in Islamic religion where one a devote Muslim his supposed to make a pilgrimage (hajji) to at least once in their life. Mohammad conquered this land and forced conversion upon the elites after he gained sufficient military strength during his exile in Medina.
  • Man in Christian belief that God established the holy covenant with. The covenant was the justification for why the Jews claimed ownership of the “holy land” Canaan. He was order to leave the polytheistic area of Mesopotamia and take on a monotheistic viewpoint centered on God “Yahweh”. In exchange for this he was promised that, along with his descendants, ownership of the land located in the western area of the Fertile Crescent, which today is known as Israel.
  • The primary script in Judaism the other being the Talmud. Contains the first five books of Moses and provides ethical moral standards that every Jew should abide by. Preceded the Talmud that contained increased strictness of laws that one should comply with.
code of hammurabi
Code of Hammurabi
  • Written law established by King Hammurabi who claimed to have been chosen by the Gods to carry out the task of maintaining order in Mesopotamia. It foundation was the concept of lex talions which means the law of retaliation. (Eye for an eye) Chaos is Mesopotamian society was due to a lack of belief in the afterlife; there wasn’t any incentive to live morally right.
grand canal
Grand Canal
  • Artificial waterway developed because of the limitations of trade by using only the Yellow and Yangzi rivers that only ran east to west. Built to facilitate trade with the northern and southern parts of China. It is one of the world’s largest waterworks projects before modern times and shows how centralized the Chinese government was to construct a project of that caliber.
trans sahara trade route
Trans-Sahara Trade Route
  • Trade route in Western Africa that allowed for the most interactions with Muslim merchants. Because of this Western Africa became increasingly Muslim. Facilitated trading of many goods but among the most significant was gold. This allowed African Kings to becoming increasingly rich as they could tax the trade.
swahili coast
Swahili Coast
  • Coast located along the southern area of Africa that had the least amount of Islamic influence due to restriction of interaction with the port cities only. Trade was done with Muslim merchants but there was no reason for these them to go beyond the port cities because the goods had been brought there from inner locations already.
exam tips
Exam tips
  • 30 terms
  • 20 of them will be on the exam
  • 10 have to be defined.
  • Each term (10 points each) has to be 3 to 4 sentences. This portion of the test is worth (100 points) half of your final exam.
good luck
Good Luck

on your

Final Exam!!!!