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Western Civilization I HIS-101

Western Civilization I HIS-101

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Western Civilization I HIS-101

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  1. Western Civilization IHIS-101 Unit 8 – Early Middle Ages, 750-1000

  2. End of Late Antiquity • Byzantium – Greek • Greek-speaking • Combined Roman imperial and bureaucratic traditions with intense pursuit of Christian faith • Islam – Arabic • The Roman ideal of expansion and cultural and religious assimilation • Hellenistic philosophical and scientific interests • Persian literary and artistic culture • Western Europe – Latin • Latin – Speaking • Germanic, Celtic, and Latin cultural influences • Roman ideals of empire

  3. Byzantium in the 7th Century • With Justinian’s death, the empire faced numerous issues • Empty treasury due to wars • Too much territory to protect • Smaller population from the plague • Renewed threats along the frontier • Creation of the theme • A new administrative unit which placed control of both the military and civilian populations in one person • Led to increased militarization of the empire • Helped strengthen the empire from new threats

  4. Byzantium in the 7th Century • Threat of Islam • Most serious challenge to the empire • Unified Arab tribes attempted to take control of the empire including Constantinople • City was able to defend itself through the use of Greek Fire • Still remained struggles between the two in southern Asia Minor • The Bulgars • Asiatic people who settled in the Balkans • In 679, defeated imperial forces and created a new Bulgarian kingdom in the lower Danube River valley

  5. Byzantium in the 8th Century • By the 8th century, Byzantium only controlled the eastern Balkans and Asia Minor • By this point, it had developed a unique character, separating it more clearly from the west • Development as a Greek state • Latin fell into disuse after Justinian’s reign • His Body of Civil Law was the last thing published in Latin • Greek became the official language • Development of a Christian state • Tied in with the government was a strong foundation in Christianity • Almost all of its citizens were devoutly Christian

  6. Byzantium in the 8th Century • Permanent war economy • State retained control through regulation of economy • Necessary due to the need for a large army • Pushed agricultural and industrial production for the necessary funds • State took control of trade of grain and silk • Role of the Emperor • Believed to have been chosen by God • Were absolute rulers • As they appointed the patriarch, they also exuded control over the church

  7. Mosaic inside the Hagia Sophia

  8. Byzantine Religion • The Byzantine Empire was characterized by religious orthodoxy • There were numerous disputes over proper wording of religious creeds • Emperor played an active role in doctrinal disputes • First Iconoclastic Controversy (730-787) • Iconoclasts wanted to prohibit the veneration of icons • To them, it resembled idolatry and paganism • Also believed that because Christ was divine, he should not be portrayed in art • Traditionalist argued it was not the images that were worshipped by the what they represented

  9. Byzantine Religion • Emperor Leo III (717–741) • Supported Iconoclasm and made it official policy of the church • Ordered the removal and destruction of all images • When the Patriarch refused to comply, Leo replaced him • Constantine IV (741-775) • Also a strong supporter of Iconoclasm • Heavily persecuted those who did not follow his rulings, including monks • Seventh Ecumenical Council at Nicaea (787) • Instigated by Irene, regent to her son Leo IV • Brought a temporary end to Iconoclasm

  10. Byzantine Religion • Second Iconoclastic Controversy (814-842) • Instituted by Emperor Leo V • Did not end until Theodora, regent to Michael III, reinstated images in 842 • Consequences • Much religious art destroyed as a result of the Controversy • Opened a serious breach between East and West as the popes were against Iconoclasm • Defeat of Iconoclasm led to renewed emphasis on Orthodox faith as key to political unity • Focusing on tradition led to fewer religious conflicts and a stronger fear of heresy

  11. “Triumph of Orthodoxy” • Theodora and Michael celebrating the end to Iconoclasm

  12. Rise of Islam • Born in the desert of Arabia • Early Arabian religions were polytheistic • There was the belief in one supreme God (Allah) who ruled over the other gods • Ka’bah • Allah was symbolized by the Black Stone which was enshrined in the Ka’bah in Mecca • Quraish tribe • Dominant tribe of Mecca • Controlled the Ka’bah and the economic life of Mecca • It was also the tribe Muhammad was born into

  13. Muhammad (c. 570-632) • Muhammad (c. 570-632) • Born at Mecca to a merchant family but was orphaned at the age of 5 • Became a caravan manager • Married his employer at the age of 25 • Religious experience • In 610, the angel Gabriel appeared to him • Told him that there was no god but Allah • Muhammad becomes an uncompromising monotheist • Believed that Allah had already revealed himself to both Moses and Jesus • “Called” to be the “Prophet”

  14. Muhammad (c. 570-632) • Muhammad wanted to convince people that his revelations were true • Some thought he was insane • Others thought he would upset the social and political order • The Quraish may have been fearful of how this would affect the Ka’bah and the commerce of the city • Hijrah of 622 • Muhammad and his followers were invited to Yathrib • Organized the first Muslim community there • Believed there was no separation between religious and political authority • City was remained Medina (“city of the Prophet”) • Marks the beginning of the Islamic era (year 1)

  15. Muhammad (c. 570-632) • Conquering of Mecca • Muhammad put together a sizable military force • Started raids on Quraish caravans • Finally captures Mecca in 630 and the Quraish submit to Islam • Farewell Pilgrimage (632) • Muhammad’s final pilgrimage to Mecca • Accompanied by tens of thousands of followers • Laid the foundation for the Hajj • Muhammad died on June 8, 632 • Did not stop the spread of his teachings • Spread throughout the Arab world in a short period of time • Helped to united Arab society both politically and religiously

  16. Religious Teachings of Islam • Term islam means “submission to the will of Allah” • Allah – the Creator God Almighty • Muhammad as the last and greatest prophet • Men and women must surrender themselves to Allah • Qur'an • Book containing God’s revelations to Muhammad • Basic message: there is no God but Allah and Muhammad is his Prophet • 114 chapters • Serves as Muslim code of ethics and law

  17. Religious Teachings of Islam • “Five Pillars” of Islam • Belief in Allah and Muhammad as his Prophet • Standard prayer five times a day and public prayer on Friday • Observance of the holy month of Ramadan with fasting from dawn to sunset • Making a pilgrimage to Mecca in one’s lifetime • Giving alms to the poor • Islam, Christianity and Judaism • Jesus was a prophet but was not the son of God • Strict monotheism • Old and New Testament as divinely inspired • Islam as a way of life – no sacraments or clergy

  18. Islamic Conquests • Abu-Bakr (c. 573-634) • Was Muhammad’s father-in-law who succeeded him • The caliph (“deputy of the Prophet”) • Led a military campaign against those who followed Muhammad but would not follow Abu-Bakr • Successors continued on to expand throughout the Middle East and into north Africa and Spain • Explanations • Search for territory and booty • Weakness of their neighbors • Did not demand conversions • Muslims preferred to old rulers

  19. Expansion of Islam After Muhammad

  20. The Shiite-Sunni Schism • Caliph Uthman replaces Umar in 644 • A weak ruler • Belonged to the wealthy Umayyad family who initially rejected Muhammad • Murdered in 656 by mutineers • Opponents rally around Ali • Was Muhammad’s cousin and son-in-law • Murdered and Uthman’s party emerged triumphant • The Sunnis • Accepted religious customs set forth by Abu-Bakr and Umar as binding (sunna) • Also accepted Uthman as the legitimate heir to Muhammad

  21. The Shiite-Sunni Schism • The Shiites • Insisted that only descendants of Ali and Fatimah (his wife) could rule the Muslim community (the umma) • Did not accept binding religious customs • Minority religious party

  22. Great Umayyad Mosque at Damascus

  23. Umayyads and Abbasids • Umayyad Dynasty (661-750) • Were looking towards the west for expansion • Capital at Damascus • Sort of a Byzantine successor state • Goal was to conquer Constantinople • Failed attack in 717 weakened the rulers • After 750, Umayyad dynasty rules only in Spain • Abbasid Dynasty (750-1258) • More eastern focused • Rule stressed Persian elements rather than Byzantine • New capital was built at Baghdad

  24. Islam in the 9th and 10th Centuries • Faced numerous problems • Impoverishment of economic base • Due to ecological crises in the Tigris-Euphrates basin • Because of this, tax revenues declined • Unable to support civil service or mercenary army • Religious division between Sunnis and Shiites, and between the different Shiite factions • Umayyad Spain succumbs to Christian pressure by the 9th and 10th centuries • Christian conquest of Spain complete by the mid-13th century

  25. Europe c. 650

  26. Instability in the Early Middle Ages • Prior to 650, the economy of the west was strong • Gold coinage was still being used • Trade was strong, including luxuary goods • By 650, economic stability broke down • Causes in Byzantium • Justinian's effort to reconquer the West • Excessive Byzantine taxation of agricultural lands • This hurt the peasantry the most • Islamic piracy

  27. Instability in the Early Middle Ages • Causes in western Europe • Urban life declined as more people moved out to the countryside • Land passed out of cultivation • Coinage system broke down • Two-tier economy (wealthy using coins, poor bartering) • Political instability • Incessant wars between kings and lords • Inability to regulate royal succession • Rivalries

  28. Coronation of Charlemagne (800)

  29. The Carolingians • Rise of the Carolingians • Worked to depose the Merovingian dynasty from Frankish lands in the 8th century • Pepin the Short (751-768) • Son of Charles Martel • Was appointed king by Frankish nobility • Also was anointed by Pope Stephen II • First king to be anointed, setting a new precedent • Went to war against the Lombards • Donated the land gained to the pope, helping to further develop the Papal States

  30. Charlemagne (768-814) • Charlemagne (768-814) • Charles the Great – Carolus magnus • Son of Pepin the Short • Was a warrior king who was also well educated • Expansion of the Empire • United the Frankish Kingdom through armed expeditions • Went on a total of 54 military campaigns throughout Spain, Italy, and Germany • In 773, took control of Italy from the Lombards • In 788, defeated the Bavarians • Wiped the Avars in the Danube River Valley from existence

  31. Charlemagne (768-814) • Turned his attention south towards Spain • Began fighting in northern Spain in 778 • Was defeated by the Basques • In 795, established the Spanish March just south of the Pyrenees as a defensive border against the Muslims • Campaigns into German • Fought against the Saxons between the Elbe River and North Sea in northern Germany • In 804, defeated them after 18 campaigns • At its peak, the empire covered most of western and central Europe • Europe will not see another empire of this size until Napoleon

  32. Charlemagne’s Empire

  33. Charlemagne (768-814) • Governing the Empire • There was no system of public taxation • Depended upon the royal estates to provide necessary resources (food and goods) • Gave loyal nobles lifetime holdings • Count • These were king’s chief representatives in local areas • Descended from the similar position under Merovingians • Included margraves (mark graf) in the border regions • Were a threat to Charlemagne as they had extraordinary power in their local districts

  34. Charlemagne (768-814) • Charlemagne wanted to limit the powers of the counts • Moved them to serve outside their own family lands • Periodically rotated them to new regions • Made the offices appointive rather than hereditary • Missidominci – “Messengers of the King” • One lay nobility and one church official • Travel to local districts to keep an eye on the counts • Difficulties of governing • Large distances made it difficult to exercise supervision over local affairs • Depended upon a loyal and powerful local lord • Meant that the king had to be more powerful than the lords

  35. Charlemagne (768-814) • Other reforms • Military reforms included the use of new siege technology and new military tactics • Continued the use of the “cavalry revolution” started by Charles Martel • New coinage system using livre,sous, and deniers (1 livre = 20 sous; 1 sous = 12 deniers) • Carolingian Renaissance with advancements in art, literature, and scholarship • Development of the Carolingian minuscule as a writing standard

  36. Example of Carolingian minuscule • (c. 1125-1130)

  37. Charlemagne and the Catholic Church • Hierarchy of the Catholic Church disintegrated over the course of the 7th century • Many positions were unfilled • Others were filled with unqualified relatives of the royal families • Charlemagne took up the cause of church reform • Appointed qualified officials to church positions and created new ones • Made sure clergy followed their superior and executed their duties • Gained support from the church for his efforts

  38. Charlemagne and the Catholic Church • Pope Leo III (795-816) • Had been strongly disliked by Roman nobility • Faction led by the nephew of the previous pope charged him with misconduct, perjury, and adultery • In April 799, was attacked by a gang who attempted to gouge his eyes out and cut off his tongue • Fled to the safety of Charlemagne’s court • Charlemagne provided an armed escort for Leo’s return • The assailants were arrested and charged • However, Charlemagne had to come down with troops in Fall 800 to secure the pope’s position

  39. Charlemagne and the Catholic Church • Charlemagne as Emperor • Was crowned as “Emperor of the Romans” by Pope Leo III after mass on December 25, 800 • Historians are unsure if he knew in advance that this was going to happen • Accepted the title as it put him on equal standing with the Byzantine emperor • Title may have been given as a result of the rise of Iconoclasm in the east • Significance: Germanic king crowed emperor by the spiritual leader of western Christendom

  40. Louis the Pious • (814–840)

  41. Collapse of the Carolingian Empire • Charlemagne died on January 28, 814 • Died shortly after developing pleurisy • None of his descendants had the personality or strength to hold the empire together • Louis the Pious (814–840) • Was the only surviving legitimate son of Charlemagne • Endured numerous wars along the frontier • Also struggled with both the Frankish nobility and his own four sons in a number of civil wars • After his death, sons continued to struggle for control of the empire

  42. Collapse of the Carolingian Empire • Treaty of Verdun (843) • Divided the empire amongst Louis’ three surviving sons • Charles the Bald (843-877) received the western Frankish kingdom (develop into modern France) • Louis the German (843-876) received the eastern lands (develop into modern Germany) • Lothair (840-855) received both the title of Emperor and the “Middle Kingdom” which included the Netherlands, the Rhineland, and northern Italy • Continued collapse • Descendants continued to struggle for power • Exacerbated by external attacks

  43. Frankish kingdoms after the Treaty of Verdun (843)

  44. Invasions of the 9th and 10th Centuries • Europe faced invasions from three entities over the course of the 9th and 10th centuries • Included Muslims, Magyars, and the Vikings • The latter two would be assimilated into Christian European civilization • Muslims • Expansion into southern Mediterranean began in the 9th century • Raided southern coasts • Took the island of Sicily in 827 and threatened Rome • Destroyed Carolingian defenses in northern Spain • Led raids into southern France

  45. Invasions of the 9th and 10th Centuries • Magyars • Originally hailed from western Asia • Moved into the Carpathian Basin c. 895 • The Árpád dynasty led raids into Germany, France, and Italy between 898-920 • Expansion was checked by Otto I of the Germans at the Battle of Lechfeld (955) • By the 10th century they were converted to Christianity • Created the kingdom of Hungary (c. 1000) • First king, Stephen I (c. 1000-1038), was later canonized by the Church

  46. St. Stephen I • (c. 1000-1038)

  47. The Vikings • Vikings • Germanic people based in Scandinavia • They mark the final wave of Germanic migration • Was a warrior class society known for its superior ship building • Viking raids • Began in the 790s as sporadic, small-scale raids • Became more regular and devastating in the 9th century • Sacked towns and villages, defeating small armies • Brought sense of fear to northern Europe • Local priests would encourage populations to change their behavior as God was angry with them

  48. The Vikings • Expansion • Began establishing winter settlements throughout Europe • Norwegian Vikings moved into Ireland and western England • Danish Vikings moved into eastern England and the Rhineland • In 911, Frankish king Charles the Simple gave one of the Viking rulers, Rollo, the Duchy of Normandy • This was in return for Rollo converting to Christianity • Set a precedence as more kings allowed the Vikings to settle • Became protectors against other Viking attacks • Ruled principalities in Scotland, Ireland, Normandy and Russia

  49. The Vikings • Explorers • The Vikings were know for their explorations throughout the north including Russia to the east • In 860, they began exploring the north Atlantic • Discovered Iceland in 874 • Eric the Red (950 - c. 1003) • Born in Norway • Parents were exiled to Iceland on charges of manslaughter • Eric was banished from Iceland for murder in 982 • Decided to travel west to Greenland • By this point, a number of Vikings had already been to Greenland • Created the first permanent settlement there in 985

  50. The Vikings • Leif Eriksson (c.970 – c.1020) • Son of Erik the Red • According to the Saga of the Greenlanders, traveled west of Greenland in 1000 • Helluland(“Land of the Flat Stones”) - Baffin Island • This was the first land he came to in his exploration • Markland (“Tree-land”) - Labrador • Eriksson’s crew cut down many trees to bring back to Greenland • Vinland (“Land of the Grapevines”) - Newfoundland • His crew spent the winter here • Viking settlement at L’Anse Aux Meadows (c. 11th century)