CLL lecture: The role of input in SLA. November 2004 Florencia Franceschina. Types of evidence. Positive evidence Do you like pasta?. Types of evidence. Negative evidence Direct Explicit(correction, instruction) ‘ Like you pasta? ’ is wrong.
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Positive evidenceDo you like pasta?
For learners to be able to make use of the L2 input in learning they need to be able to parse it first. That is, they have to be able to assign a structure to the strings of speech they hear.
This happens at many levels:- phonological- syntactic- semanticetc.
The assumption is that learners parse the (L2) input on the basis of their existing grammar. If this grammar is insufficient/inadequate for parsing some input, this motivates restructuring of the grammar in an attempt to accommodate to the available input. This process is what drives development according to researchers such as:
Poverty of the stimulus
Underdetermination of knowledge by the input
1. Short-lived effects of instructionTrahey (1996), Trahey and White (1993), White (1990/1991), and White, Spada, Lightbown and Ranta (1991):- L1 French / L2 English- Can L1 French speakers learn that the following is ungrammatical? *Cats catch often mice.- different types of input: direct instruction, indirect instruction and input flood- findings: direct instruction was the most effective in the short term, but none of the three methods had any long-term effects (after 1-year)
The subject of an embedded subjunctive clause must have disjoint reference from the subject of the matrix clause:
[I] want [me/he/she] to go to the party.
[I] hope that [I/he/she] will be able to speak to John today.
[I] will call you when [I/he/she] arrive(s).
Krashen (1982, 1985)
and many others
“treatment of form in the context of performing a communicative task”
(Ellis et al. 2002: 419)
Swain’s (1985, 1993, 1995) Output Hypothesis proposes that output can be used to:
“negotiation for meaning, and especially negotiation work that triggers interactional adjustments by the NS or more competent interlocutor, facilitates acquisition because it connects the input, internal learner capacities, particularly selective attention, and output in productive ways” (pp. 451-452)