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R e p u b l i c o f L e b a n o n. CDM Investors Forum UNEP-RISO, CD4CDM Project. Apex- Conseil, Jerba-Tunisia, 22-24 Sept 2004. Lebanon’s GHG Profile. Matilda El-Khoury, UNDP Project Manager. U n i t e d N a t i o n s D e v e l o p m e n t P r o g r a m m e. Introduction.

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R e p u b l i c o f L e b a n o n

CDM Investors Forum


Apex-Conseil,Jerba-Tunisia, 22-24 Sept 2004

Lebanon’s GHG Profile

Matilda El-Khoury, UNDP Project Manager

U n i t e d N a t i o n s D e v e l o p m e n t P r o g r a m m e

  • Lebanon Ratified the Climate Change Convention in Dec. 1994, but has not yet ratified the Kyoto Protocol;
  • The CC Focal Point in Lebanon is the Ministry of Environment;
  • With respect to CC activities, Lebanon has effected one national communication to the UNFCCC (Base Yr 1994) and has made one inventory update (Base Yr 1999); Lebanon has also launched two GEF funded energy efficiency projects;

Area: 10,452 Km2

country background
Country Background



country background1
Country Background



co 2 index for 1994 and 1999
CO2 Index for 1994 and 1999
  • The CO2 emissions increased by 17.8% bet. 1994 and 1999;
  • The CO2/Capita increased by 5.4% bet. 1994 and 1999;
emissions breakdown for 1994 and 1999
Emissions Breakdown for 1994 and 1999
  • The Energy sector is the largest contributor of CO2 (85%);
  • The Waste sector is the largest contributor of CH4 (83%);
  • The Agricultural sector is the largest contributor of N2O (96%);
co 2 breakdown for 1994 and 1999
CO2 Breakdown for 1994 and 1999
  • 1999 CO2 breakdown:
  • 59% energy* sector
  • 27% Transport sector
  • 11% Ind. Processes
  • -3% LUCF
  • 1994 CO2 breakdown:
  • 56% energy* sector
  • 29% Transport sector
  • 14% Ind. Processes
  • 1% LUCF
i power sector description
I - Power Sector: Description
  • Jurisdiction: Ministry of Energy and Water Resources
  • Electric Generation:

Public Sector (EDL) 77%; Private Generation 15%; Imports from Syria: 8% (850 KWh in 1999)

  • EDL: Installed Power 2348 MW; Available Operational Power 1600 to 1800 MW;
  • EDL operates 8 thermal plants and 5 hydroelectric plants. The power generation from hydroelectric dropped from 786 KWh in 1998 to 331 KWh in 1999;
i power sector description1
I - Power Sector: Description
  • Despite improvements in the distribution network, power shortage is still wide spread;
  • The yearly growth in electric energy demand in Lebanon over the next 10 years is estimated to be about 3-5%.
  • Recently the Lebanese Parliament passed a law to privatize the generation and distribution sectors of the power utility. Accordingly these sectors will be sold to private companies, with the transmission sector kept under the EDL control and management.
i power sector emissions
I - Power Sector: Emissions
  • In 1999, the electric energy consumption reached 9032 GWh with corresponding primary energy and electric energy densities of 0.32 koe/$ and 0.65 kWh/$, respectively. The per capita electric energy consumption is 2.42 MWh/year.
  • The electric power sector is one of the main sources of GHG emissions. In1994, this sector has contributed around 30% of all CO2 emissions and 33% in 1999.
i power sector mitigation potential
I - Power Sector: Mitigation Potential
  • The Mitigation scenarios assessed include:
  • Improving supply mix through renewable energy (<10%)
  • Fuel substitution by natural gas

The assessment revealed that Fuel substitution by natural gas can provide emissions reduction by 117 million tons of CO2 and 251 million tons of CO2 for demand growth of 4% and 6%, respectively; and the improvement of supply mix through renewable solar energy (<10%) can provide around 30 million tons of CO2 emissions reduction.

ii transport sector description
II - Transport Sector: Description
  • Land Transport
  • Fleet size: ~ 1.3 million registered vehicles, 75% of which are cars;
  • Fleet age: ~ 70% of the vehicles are > 15 yrs old;
  • Car ownership rate: ~ 3 persons/car;
  • Railway Transport: Non-operable;
  • Public Transport: 38,000 vehicles (taxis, buses and mini-vans)
  • Reliance on Public Transport: Low
  • Road Network: 22,000 Km (of which 15% are international roads);
  • Road Network Jurisdiction:
  • 30% classified → MPWT; 70% non classified → MOM;
ii transport sector description1
II - Transport Sector: Description
  • Air Transport
  • Total No. of Flights: 27,878
  • Total No. of Passengers: 2,222,344 – Target: 6 million passengers
  • Freight: 52,439 Tons
  • Sea Transport
  • Four Sea Ports: Beirut, Tripoli, Sydon, Sour;
  • Beirut Sea Port: docking of > 2,800 ships;
ii transport sector emissions
II - Transport Sector: Emissions
  • The Largest Emissions Contributor in the Transport sector is gasoline;
ii transport sector emissions1
II - Transport Sector: Emissions
  • The overall import of transport related fuels increased by 12.7% between 1994 and 1999;
  • The CO2 emissions increased by 15.7% between 1994 and 1999;
  • Leaded gasoline fuel was the main fuel used for land transport until 2001, when the Government introduced cost incentives, and starting July 2002, leaded fuel became officially banned.
ii transport sector mitigation potential
II - Transport Sector: Mitigation potential

The mitigation scenarios assessed include:

  • Introduction of hybrid electric vehicles (<10%)
  • Introduction of mass transport system
iii industrial sector description
III - Industrial Sector: Description
  • Number of Industrial facilities: 22,000
  • Types of Fuel used: fuel oil and LPG for boilers and furnaces; diesel oil for local power generation.
  • The 1999 statistics show a 2% growth over 1994;
  • The main industries in the country include: Building materials industry, food and beverage industry, clothing and textile industry, and furniture and manufactured products.
  • The total industrial output for 1998 was USD 3,953 billion, and the value added was about USD 1.707 billion.
  • The Industrial sector generates about 188,850 tons of industrial solid waste annually;
iii industrial sector emissions
III - Industrial Sector: Emissions
  • In 1994, the energy consumption figures reached about 970 ktoe, releasing 1924 Gg of CO2. The energy for heat and power, including around 149 ktoe used for local electricity generation, represents 15.9% of total fuel used in industry;
  • In 1999, the sector released 1916 Gg of CO2, in addition to other GHG such as CO (0.003 Gg), and SO2 (1.12 Gg);
  • In 1994, the Industrial sector was responsible for 14% of all CO2 emissions in Lebanon, and 11% in 1999;

III - Industrial Sector: Emissions

CO2 1916 Gg

CO 0.003 Gg

N2O 0.013 Gg

NMVOC 106.717 Gg

SO2 1.12 Gg

HFC’s 0.252 Gg

CO2 Emissions from Industrial Sources (1999)

iv other sectors
IV – Other sectors

Building sector:

  • In 1999, the building sector consumed around 4111 GWH, constituting 38% of the total electricity consumed in the country and around 740 toe, constituting 13.8% of the total amount of fuel consumed in 1999. The sector has witnessed a growth rate of around 8.5% in electricity consumption and 5.4% in fuel consumption;

Waste management:

  • Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) makes up about 90% of the total solid waste generated in Lebanon.
  • Lebanon generated about 1,44 million tons of MSW in 2001 (about 3,940 tons per day), or about 0.92 kg per person per day, and emits around 78% of all methane emitted.
  • Organic waste is by far the single largest component of MSW, representing over 63% of the total MSW quantity in GBA and slightly over 50% at the national level.

Thank you for your attention

For more information, please contact:

Ministry of


UNDP EEB Project:

References: Lebanon’s First National Communication to the UNFCCC; Lebanon’s Climate Change Enabling Activity, phase II; Lebanon’s Master-plan Study.