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The West. A.P. U.S. History Mr. Krueger. Settling the West. Horace Greeley, editor of New York Times – “If you head west and make yourself a farm in Uncle Sam’s domain, you will crowd nobody, starve nobody and neither you or your children will beg for something to do.”

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the west

The West

A.P. U.S. History

Mr. Krueger

settling the west
Settling the West
  • Horace Greeley, editor of New York Times – “If you head west and make yourself a farm in Uncle Sam’s domain, you will crowd nobody, starve nobody and neither you or your children will beg for something to do.”
    • Post Civil War – destiny to expand reemerges – Crushed the culture of the Native Americans and ignored the contributions of Mexicans and Chinese
    • New States created further west
  • Western raw Materials were sent to eastern industries
    • Western economies depended on the federal government to:
      • Subsidize the railroads
      • Distribute the land
      • Spend millions for the upkeep of soldiers and Native Americans

The less favorable side of settlement was seen in the ghost towns, abandoned farms, and devastated environment left by miners. The west was a place of conquest, exploitation, and a land of cowboys and quick fortunes.

  • What was the geography of the west like? What did the settlers see/experience?
  • What brought people to the West?
  • What Native Americans were there?
  • What types of wildlife populated the region?
native americans
Native Americans
  • 1865 – Native Americans inhabited nearly ½ of the U.S. – by 1880 they lived on reservations that were not independent
    • ¼ of a million Native Americans lived in the west – Winnebago, Cherokee, Menominee, Chippewa – resettled after being forced out
    • SW Region – Pueblo groups – Hopi, Zuni – Adobe dwelling and peaceful farming
    • Navajo and Apache were nomadic. Navajo herded sheep, Apache had fierce horsemen
  • Plains Indians – Sioux, Blackfoot, Cheyenne, Pawnee, Apache, and Comanche
    • Nomads that depended on buffalo and horses – horses arrived with the Spanish – changed lifestyle – they became warriors and hunters
    • Comanche rode 300 yards and shot 20 arrows before a U.S. soldier could reload. This led to the advancement in warfare technology
    • Buffalo provided everything – food, shelter, clothing – all was used
    • Conflict occurred with stealing horses or counting coups
    • Language and gender roles differed – sign language was used to communicate
crushing the natives
Crushing the Natives
  • Pre Civil War – Land west of Mississippi was called Indian Country – one big reservation
    • 1834 – Indian Intercourse Act – prohibited whites in the Indian Country
    • 1850’s – Wagons head west
    • One big reservation idea changes – boundaries created for each tribe – Nomadic tribes challenge the centration policy
  • Warfare begins for the Arapaho and the Cheyenne
    • 1865 – they ask for peace. Chief Black Kettle led 700 followers to Sand Creek. Colorado Militia kills and scalps all of them. Labeled the Chivington Massacre after the commanding Colonel John Chivington
    • Government Condemns massacre but forces the Cheyenne to leave
  • 1865-1867 – Great Sioux War
    • Gold miners want to connect mining towns through Sioux Hunting Grounds – Bozeman Trail
    • Red Cloud (Sioux Chief) was determined to stop them. He lured the Captain, William Fetterman, into battle and massacred 80 troops.
    • Government debates the Indian Policy – some want to “civilize” them, others just want to punish Natives. Peace Advocates win and convince the Native Americans to move to reservations – the Black Hills and Oklahoma
  • With 54,000 Native Americans moved to the Black Hills and 86,000 moved to Oklahoma – how would this affect their lifestyle and cultural identity?
  • Why would the government have agents supervising the reservations?
  • What was taught in the reservation schools – how does this systematically destroy native culture?
final battles on the plains
Final Battles on the Plains
  • Reservation Policy changed age old customs and brought poverty and isolation – leads to warfare for a decade – 1868
    • Kiowa and Comanche campaigned in Texas until defeated in the Red River War
    • Northern Plains Indians fight to repel gold miners in the Black Hills.
  • 1875 – Sioux (Crazy Horse, Sitting Bull, Rain in the Face) gather to stop the Gold Rush and oppose Colonel George Custer
    • Custer divides his troops at the Little Big Horn and is defeated by superior forces. Custer’s Last Stand.
    • Government seeks revenge and the Sioux are beaten into submission. Sitting Bull fled to Canada, but surrenders in 1881.
  • 1890 – the Teton Sioux revived the “Ghost Dance” – ritual to make the winters disappear and return the buffalo to the prairies
    • Army intervened and killed Sitting Bull at reservation. Native Americans fled to allies at Wounded Knee Creek – army pursues and slaughters all men, women, elderly, and children they could find. (200 Killed)
the end of tribal life
The End of Tribal Life
  • Final step of the Indian Policy 1870-1880’s
    • Some reformers favored assimilation over reservations
    • Education, land policy, and federal law would end tribal society
    • 1882 – Congress created a Court of Indian Officers – Native Americans now beholden to regular courts
    • Educators created schools for assimilation
      • Carlisle Indian School – Pennsylvania
      • Haskell Institute – Kansas
    • Schools taught English, Farm Work, Machinery repairs
    • Their hair was cut and all tribal symbols banned
  • Dawes Severalty Act
    • Divided Tribal Land into small plots for distribution to the tribe
    • Surplus land was sold to white settlers, profits went to schools
  • “Kill the Indian, save the man.”
  • “Every buffalo dead is an Indian gone.”
  • Terms/Concepts
    • Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show
    • Reservation Life
    • Movement West – new roles, clothing, etc.
    • Homestead Act – 160 acres for $10 and 5 yrs. of work
    • Timber Culture Act
    • Desert Land Act
    • Timber and Stone Act
    • Southwest Culture – farming and clothing
bonanza west
Bonanza West
  • Consequences
    • Uneven growth
    • Boom-bust economic cycles
    • Wasted resources
  • Instant cities were created: San Francisco, Salt Lake City, Denver
  • Mining Bonanza
    • Attracted people who wanted to strike it rich as well as businesses and corporations to find a good claim.
    • Combstock Lode – $3,876/ton silver = $306 million
    • John W. Mackey hit 54 ft. wide vein – made $25 a minute
    • Deadwood and Tombstone were famous mining towns
    • Men mined and women worked claims, as prostitutes, as cooks, and as housekeepers
    • Immigrants flocked to mines, especially Chinese out west. Riots broke out and the Government passed the Chinese Exclusion Act (1882) – suspended immigration of Chinese laborers for 10 years.
cattle drives
Cattle Drives
  • Cattle ranching dominated the open range
    • American cowboys and Mexican vaqueros developed branding, round ups, and roping
    • Abilene was a railroad junction city for cattle purchase
      • 1870 – 300,000 cattle reached Abilene
      • 1871 – 700,000 cattle reached Abilene
    • Texas steers $4/head, sold for $30-40/head
    • Chisholm Trail – famous cattle trail
  • 1870 – 1900 farmers cultivated more land than ever
    • By 1900 the west had 30% of the nation’s population
  • Problems
    • Little surface water
    • Wells were expensive – 50-500ft (drillers $2/foot)
    • Little lumber – imported from WI
    • Grasshoppers
  • New Methods
    • Joe Glidden = Barbed Wire – ended cattle ranching
    • Dry Farming and Furrows with mulch
    • Tough Wheat strains (Russia)
    • James Oliver – chilled iron plow
    • Additional farming machinery – bailing press, grain drill, springs tooth harrow. Over 900 corporations manufactured farm machinery
    • Books created to help educate farmers on new methods
the national grange
The National Grange
  • 1860’s – Oliver Kelly founded the National Grange of Patrons (The Grange)
    • Provided social, cultural, and educational activities for its members
    • Members should not be involved in politics, but often ignored rules and supported railroad regulations
  • 1875 – 800,000 members
    • They created coop stores, grain elevators, warehouses, insurance companies
    • Leads to the farmers alliance
  • Farming boom ends in 1887
    • Drought was the key
    • The people of the west transformed American Agriculture
      • California – wine – fruit
      • Texas – beef
      • Wheat fields of the Dakotas, Minnesota, Montana