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WHI.4-5. India. Location – South Asian subcontinent (juts out from the rest of the continent). Map of Ancient India – Find the Himalayans, Hindu Kush, Indus River, Ganges River and Indian Ocean. India. Hinduism – religion Belief in many forms of one God

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Location – South Asian subcontinent (juts out from the rest of the continent)

map of ancient india find the himalayans hindu kush indus river ganges river and indian ocean
Map of Ancient India – Find the Himalayans, Hindu Kush, Indus River, Ganges River and Indian Ocean
  • Hinduism – religion
    • Belief in many forms of one God
    • Reincarnation – Rebirth based on karma
    • Karma – knowledge that all thoughts and actions result in future consequences
    • Vedas and Upanishads – sacred writings
    • Spread along major trade routes
  • Buddhism
    • Founder: Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha)
    • Four Noble Truths and Eightfold Path to Enlightenment, Enlightenment = salvation (nirvana)
    • Asoka’s missionaries and their writings spread Buddhism from India to China and other parts of Asia.
buddhism http ancienthistory mrdonn org buddhism html
Four Noble Truths: The Buddha realized that life is ruled by Four Noble Truths:

Life is filled with suffering

Suffering is caused by people's wants.

Suffering can be ended if people stop wanting things, like more pleasure or more power. 

To stop wanting things, people must follow 8 basic laws, called the Eightfold Path.

Buddhism http://ancienthistory.mrdonn.org/Buddhism.html
  • Gupta Empire
    • Decline of Buddhism and growth of Hinduism

3 Contributions of Gupta Empire:

      • Mathematics (concept of zero)
      • New textiles
      • Literature

- This period is called the Golden Age



Location – East Asia

Important River – Huang He (Yellow River)

China was very isolated due to great distances, rugged mountains, and deserts (Gobi Desert). This would help them to have a distinctive culture and not much contact with the outside world.

  • A Chinese form of Buddhism spread throughout Asia
  • Buddhism:
    • Introduced to China through Asoka’s missionaries
    • Spread because it offered comfort during hard times

Invaders raided Chinese settlements to the North. The Great Wall was built by Qin Shi Huangdi as a line of defense against invasions.

China was governed by a succession of ruling families called dynasties (first dynasty – Shang).

Chinese rulers were considered divine, but they served under a Mandate of Heaven only as long as their rule was just.


Silk Roads – trade route from China to the Mediterranean (facilitated trade as far away as Rome)

  • Contributions of classical China:
    • Civil Service system – ran day to day business of government
    • Paper
    • Porcelain
    • Silk
What is the civil service exam?

- Exam people take to work in the government (civil service)

Emperor Wudi began using this exam, why?

- to select the most qualified candidate and to open up jobs to everyone

  • Confucianism – Chinese philosophy began by the philosopher Confucius
  • Major beliefs
    • Belief that humans are good, not bad
    • Respect for elders
    • Code of politeness, still used in Chinese society today
    • Emphasis on education
    • Ancestor worship
  • Taoism – Chinese philosophy introduced by the philosopher Lao Tsu –
  • Major beliefs - “go with the flow”, emphasis on nature
  • Contributions of Taoism in forming Chinese culture and values:
    • Humility – putting others first
    • Simple life and inner peace
    • Harmony with nature
  • Two sidedness of nature = Yin and Yang
    • Yin – dark and passive (bad)
    • Yang – bright and active (good)
  • Yin/Yang represented opposites for Confucianism and Taoism.


Location and place

-Major bodies of water: Aegean Sea, Mediterranean Sea (most of the trade happened here), Black Sea, Dardanelles

-Important city-states: Athens, Sparta, Troy

-Macedonia – ancient kingdom of northern Greece (birthplace of Alexander the Great)

Find the following:
  • Aegean Sea
  • Mediterranean
  • Black Sea
  • Dardanelles
  • Macedonia
  • Sparta
  • Athens
  • Economic and social development
    • Farming/agriculture was hard – limited amount of farmable (arable) land
    • Made money through commerce (business) and the spread of Hellenic (Greek and Mediterranean) Culture
    • Shifted from a barter (trade) to a money economy (coins)
  • Political development
    • Many mountains in Greece – kept invaders out, but hindered the development of city-states.
    • Greek city-states were designed to promote civic and commercial life.
    • Colonization related to overpopulation and the search for arable land.
  • Greek mythology
    • Based on polytheistic religion
    • Explanations of natural phenomena, human qualities, and life events
    • Gods and Goddesses include: Zeus, Hera, Aphrodite
  • Social structure and citizenship in the Greek polis (Greek word for city-state)
    • Citizens were free adult males. They had political rights and the responsibility of civic participation in the government.
    • Women slaves and foreigners had no political rights.
    • Duties of the citizen: vote, pay taxes, military service
athens sparta
Athenian government: monarchy  aristocracy  tyranny  democracy

Tyrants who worked to reform:

Draco – created Athen’s first law codes

Solon – extended citizenship (outlawed slavery)

direct democracy (everyone participates), public debate, duties of the citizen

Form of government was an oligarchy – rule by a small group

Rigid social structure

Militaristic and aggressive society

Ex. Unhealthy baby boys left in the wilderness to die

Athens Sparta
persian wars 499 449 b c b c e conflicts between greece and persia
Persian Wars (499 – 449 B.C./B.C.E) – conflicts between Greece and Persia
  • Athens and Sparta against united against the Persian Empire
  • 2 important victories – Marathon and Salamis
  • Greece won.
  • Athens preserved its independence and continued innovations in government and culture.
socrates philosopher
Socrates - Philosopher
  • Great Greek philosopher – came up with “Socratic method” where you answer a question with a question – it helps people figure things out for themselves
  • Put on trial for “corrupting the youth”
  • He taught people to think for themselves and question democracy and other teachings
  • He was found guilty and sentenced to death – he killed himself, rather than be put to death
  • Golden Age of Greece under Pericles (mostly occurring between the Persian and Peloponnesian Wars)
    • Pericles extended democracy; most adult males had equal voice.
    • Pericles had Athens rebuilt after the destruction in Persian Wars.
    • Built the Parthenon – temple for Athena
peloponnesian war 431 404 b c b c e athens vs sparta
Peloponnesian War (431 – 404 B.C./B.C.E), Athens vs. Sparta
  • Caused in part by competition for control of the Greek world
  • Fought by Athens and the Delian League vs. Sparta and the Peloponnesian League
  • Sparta won.
  • Resulted in the slowing of cultural advance and the weakening of political power.
alexander the great
Alexander the Great
  • Phillip II of Macedon – Father of Alexander
    • Was assassinated, leaving Alexander as ruler at the age of 20
alexander the great1
Alexander the Great

Ruler at age 20

Better military commander than his father, Phillip (had loyalty of his troops)

Established an empire from Greece to Egypt and the margins of India – wanted all the world under one empire

Extended Greek cultural influences

Died of fever (from battle wound infection) around age 33

alexander the great2
Alexander the Great

Alexander failed to conquer the world, but spread Greece’s culture

The new culture created due to Alexander’s conquests was called Hellenistic culture (Blending of Greek and oriental elements) Learning and Commerce

Greece was eventually conquered by the Romans


C ontributions of Greek culture to Western Civilization:

- Drama: Aeschylus (wrote plays on mythology) and Sophocles (wrote plays that defended Greek values

  • Poetry: Homer (Iliad and Odyssey)
  • Historians: Herodotus and Thucydides (said studying the past helps human nature)
  • Sculpture: Phidias (created statues of Athena)
  • Contributions of Greece cont’d.:
    • Architecture: Types of columns included Doric (Parthenon), Ionian, and Corinthian
    • Science: Archimedes and Hippocrates (Hippocratic Oath – doctors)
    • Mathematics: Euclid and Pythagoras (Pythagorean theorem)
    • Philosophy: Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle