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Periodic Table. Russian chemist Organized elements by properties Arranged elements by atomic mass Predicted existence of several unknown elements Element 101 - Mendeleevium (Md). Dmitri Mendeleev. Dmitri Mendeleev. Mendeleev’s Periodic Table. Elements Properties are Predicted.

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dmitri mendeleev
Russian chemist

Organized elements by properties

Arranged elements by atomic mass

Predicted existence of several unknown elements

Element 101 - Mendeleevium (Md)

Dmitri Mendeleev

Dmitri Mendeleev

modern periodic table
Modern Periodic Table
  • Based on Mendeleev’s system
  • Arrange elements by atomic number
  • Elements organized by properties
  • Columns are groups or families(1 to 18)
  • Rows are periods (1 to 7) showing the variation of chemical and physical properties.
groups of elements
Groups of Elements

1A

8A

1A

5A

Nitrogen group

Alkali metals

H

1

2A

6A

He

2

Alkali earth metals

Oxygen group

1

1

2A

7A

3A

4A

5A

6A

7A

Halogens

Transition metals

3A

8A

Noble gases

Boron group

Li

3

Be

4

B

5

C

6

N

7

O

8

F

9

Ne

10

2

2

4A

Carbon group

Hydrogen

Inner transition metals

Na

11

Mg

12

Al

13

Si

14

P

15

S

16

Cl

17

Ar

18

3

3

8B

3B

4B

5B

6B

7B

1B

2B

K

19

Ca

20

Sc

21

Ti

22

V

23

Cr

24

Mn

25

Fe

26

Co

27

Ni

28

Cu

29

Zn

30

Ga

31

Ge

32

As

33

Se

34

Br

35

Kr

36

4

4

Rb

37

Sr

38

Y

39

Zr

40

Nb

41

Mo

42

Tc

43

Ru

44

Rh

45

Pd

46

Ag

47

Cd

48

In

49

Sn

50

Sb

51

Te

52

I

53

Xe

54

5

5

Cs

55

Ba

56

Hf

72

Ta

73

W

74

Re

75

Os

76

Ir

77

Pt

78

Au

79

Hg

80

Tl

81

Pb

82

Bi

83

Po

84

At

85

Rn

86

*

*

6

6

Fr

87

Ra

88

Rf

104

Db

105

Sg

106

Bh

107

Hs

108

Mt

109

W

W

7

7

La

57

Ce

58

Pr

59

Nd

60

Pm

61

Sm

62

Eu

63

Gd

64

Tb

65

Dy

66

Ho

67

Er

68

Tm

69

Yb

70

Lu

71

*

Ac

89

Th

90

Pa

91

U

92

Np

93

Pu

94

Am

95

Cm

96

Bk

97

Cf

98

Es

99

Fm

100

Md

101

No

102

Lr

103

W

metals and nonmetals
Metals and Nonmetals

H

1

He

2

1

Li

3

Be

4

B

5

C

6

N

7

O

8

F

9

Ne

10

Nonmetals

2

Na

11

Mg

12

Al

13

Si

14

P

15

S

16

Cl

17

Ar

18

3

K

19

Ca

20

Sc

21

Ti

22

V

23

Cr

24

Mn

25

Fe

26

Co

27

Ni

28

Cu

29

Zn

30

Ga

31

Ge

32

As

33

Se

34

Br

35

Kr

36

4

METALS

Rb

37

Sr

38

Y

39

Zr

40

Nb

41

Mo

42

Tc

43

Ru

44

Rh

45

Pd

46

Ag

47

Cd

48

In

49

Sn

50

Sb

51

Te

52

I

53

Xe

54

5

Cs

55

Ba

56

Hf

72

Ta

73

W

74

Re

75

Os

76

Ir

77

Pt

78

Au

79

Hg

80

Tl

81

Pb

82

Bi

83

Po

84

At

85

Rn

86

*

6

Fr

87

Ra

88

Rf

104

Db

105

Sg

106

Bh

107

Hs

108

Mt

109

W

7

Metalloids

La

57

Ce

58

Pr

59

Nd

60

Pm

61

Sm

62

Eu

63

Gd

64

Tb

65

Dy

66

Ho

67

Er

68

Tm

69

Yb

70

Lu

71

Ac

89

Th

90

Pa

91

U

92

Np

93

Pu

94

Am

95

Cm

96

Bk

97

Cf

98

Es

99

Fm

100

Md

101

No

102

Lr

103

properties of metals nonmetals and metalloids
Properties of Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids

METALS

malleable, lustrous, ductile, good conductors of heat

and electricity

NONMETALS

gases or brittle solids at room temperature, poor

conductors of heat and electricity (insulators)

METALLOIDS (Semi-metals)

dull, brittle, semi-conductors (used in computer chips) exhibit properties of both metals and nonmetals

electrons filling the orbitals shown in the periodic table
Electrons filling the orbitals shown in the Periodic Table

1

8

Groups

2

1s

1

3 4 5 6 7

1s

2s

2

2p

3s

3p

3

4p

3d

Periods

4s

4

4d

5p

5s

5

La

5d

6p

6

6s

Ac

6d

7

7s

4f

Lanthanide series

5f

Actinide series

size of atoms trends
Size of Atoms - Trends

Periodic Trends in Atomic Radii

shielding effect
Shielding Effect

Valence

Kernel electrons block the attractive force of the nucleus from the valence electrons

+

-

-

nucleus

-

Electrons

-

Electron

Shield

“kernel”

electrons

atomic radii trend explained
Atomic Radii trend explained
  • As you go across the period the number of shielding electrons are the same.
  • The nuclear charge is increasing (adding protons as you go across).
  • The electrons added are in the same valence shell – same distance from the nucleus.
  • More + nuclear charge gets out to the valence electrons, pulling the valence electrons in closer (stronger attraction).

Ne

Li

Li

As we go down a group each atom has another energy level, so the atoms get bigger.

There are more levels in the kernel and therefore greater shielding of valence electrons (weaker attraction).

Cs

why do elements react
Why do elements react?
  • Atoms with filled valence shells are stable – low in energy. Atoms attain a full valence shell by losing, gaining or sharing valence electrons. The result is a particle which is isoelectronic with a noble gas (has the same electron configuration as a noble gas).
  • Na 1+ =1s2 2s2 2p6 (isoelectronic Ne).
  • F1- = 1s2 2s2 2p6
radii period trends explained
Radii period trends explained
  • Metals are “born losers”, the atoms lose their valence electrons to form cations (+ ions). The kernel is smaller. The remaining electrons are more strongly attracted to the nucleus. There are more protons than electrons so the remaining electrons are pulled in closer (+ ion is smaller).
  • Nonmetals will gain valence electrons to fill the valence shell to form anions (- ions). There are more electrons to share the nuclear charge so there is a weaker attraction between the electrons and the nucleus. The weaker attraction leads to the valence electrons being further away (- ion is larger)

N 3 -

O 2 -

F 1 -

Li1+

B3+

C4+

Be2+

radii group trends explained
Radii group trends explained

Li+1

  • As you go down the group you are adding energy levels so the cations and anions get bigger.

Na+1

K+1

Rb+1

Cs+1

first ionization energy trend explained
First ionization energy trend explained
  • 1st ionization energy is the energy required to remove one electron from the gaseous atom of an element.
  • 1st ionization energy is increased by strong attraction to valence electrons and a stable electron configuration.
  • As you go across the period the attraction to valence electrons increases so ionization energy increases.
  • Peaks in energy occur at Be (full s sublevel), N (½ full p sublevel) and Ne (full s & p sublevels –full valence shell).
electronegativity values
Electronegativity values
  • Electronegativity is the tendency for an atom to attract electrons to itself when it is chemically combined with another element.
  • Big electronegativity values means the atom pulls the valence electrons toward the nucleus, strong attraction to valence electrons.
  • Atoms with small electronegativity values have weak attraction to valence electrons and these electrons are drawn away from this atom.
electronegativity tend explained
Electronegativity tend explained
  • Group Trend: The further down a group the farther the electron is away and the more shielding electrons an atom has – the lower the electronegativity value.

Period Trend: Metals on the left lose electrons easily (weak attraction for valence electrons). Metals have low electronegativity values.

  • Nonmetals on the right need more electrons to complete the valence shell and have strong attraction for valence electrons. Nonmetals have high electronegativity values.
  • Electronegativity values increase as you go across the period
electron affinity values
Electron Affinity values
  • Electron Affinity is the energy change associated with adding an electron to a gaseous atom.
  • If the atom becomes more stable (electron configuration like the noble gases) there is a loss of energy and the energy change is shown a negative value.
  • If the atom becomes less stable the energy level goes up and the energy change is shown as a positive value.
electron affinity tend explained
Electron Affinity tend explained
  • Across a period the electron affinity is low for metals and high for nonmetals (electron affinity increases from left to right). In Group 7A valence electrons are strongly attracted to the nucleus and an extra electron gives the atom a full valence shell.
  • Electron affinity decreases as we go down a group because the atoms are getting bigger and the valence electrons are not attracted as strongly to the nucleus.
summary of periodic trends
Summary of Periodic Trends

Nuclear charge increases

Shielding is constant

Atomic radius decreases

Ionization energy increases

Electronegativity increases

Electron affinity increases

Nuclear charge increases

Shielding increases

Atomic radius increases

Ionic size increases

Ionization energy decreases

Electronegativity decreases

Electron affinity decreases

1A

2A

0

4A

6A

3A

7A

5A

Ionic size (cations) Ionic size (anions)

decreases decreases