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Periodic Table. Coloring the periodic Table. Hydrogen is a NONMETAL despite its placement on the left hand side of the P.Table . Metals-Left of “staircase” Nonmetals-Right of “staircase” Alkali metals-first family Alkaline Earth metals-second family Halogens-second to last family

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coloring the periodic table
Coloring the periodic Table
  • Hydrogen is a NONMETAL despite its placement on the left hand side of the P.Table.
  • Metals-Left of “staircase”
  • Nonmetals-Right of “staircase”
  • Alkali metals-first family
  • Alkaline Earth metals-second family
  • Halogens-second to last family
  • Noble gases-last family
  • Lanthanides-pulled out first row
  • Actinides-pulled out second row
families alkali metals
Families-Alkali Metals
  • Group 1 (excluding Hydrogen)
  • React with water violently!
  • Lose a valence electron to become 1+
  • Cations
  • Soft, highly reactive, good conductors of heat and electricity,
alkali metals
Alkali Metals
  • Li
    • Lithium batteries, lithium in dehumidifiers, strengthens glass, used to treat mood swings, fireworks.
  • Na
    • Found in table salt, vapor lamps, sodium potassium pump in animals to create gradient in cells, fireworks.
  • K
    • Active transport pump, nerve cell conduction, fertilizer, salt substitute, fireworks.
families alkaline earth metals
Families-Alkaline Earth Metals
  • Group 2
  • Shiny solids, harder than alkali metals
  • Lose 2 valence electrons, 2+ charge
  • Cations
  • React with water (except Beryllium)
  • React with oxygen
alkaline earth metals
Alkaline Earth Metals
  • Calcium-
    • bones, teeth, bloodstream, limestone, chalk, marble, coral reef,
  • Magnesium-
    • alloys of magnesium and aluminum and zinc are strong, but light
    • Plants need it to make chlorophyll
    • Found in hard water (makes it difficult for soap to work properly
    • Strontium-fireworks-red color
families halogens
Families-Halogens
  • Group 17 (sometimes referred to as 7A)
  • Forms compounds with almost all metals.
  • Gain one valence electron to become 1- charge
  • Anions
halogens
Halogens
  • Fluorine
    • Toothpaste, drinking water
  • Chlorine
    • Gas at room temperature, deadly gas, bleaching agents, anesthetics at the dentist, disinfects water, found in stomach acid.
  • Bromine
    • Used in photographic film
  • Iodine
    • Need in diet to maintain healthy thyroid gland, kills bacteria
families noble gases
Families-Noble Gases
  • Group 18 (sometimes listed as 8A)
  • Last naturally occurring elements to be discovered.
  • Xe will react with F (F is so reactive)
  • Fairly inert (stable)
  • Gas at room temperature
noble gases
Noble Gases
  • He-
    • used to inflate balloons, sun, deep sea diving tanks
  • Ne-
    • light displays (electricity excites electrons, when they fall it releases energy in the form of light)
  • Ar-
    • most abundant noble gas on Earth, atmosphere, welding,
metals
Metals
  • Left of staircase
  • Cations
  • Give up electrons
  • Good conductors of heat and electricity
  • High melting and boiling points.
  • Generally solids, at room temperature.
  • Malleable (sheets) and Ductile (wire)
metalloids
Metalloids
  • Either side of the staircase
  • Physical and chemical properties of both metals and nonmetals.
  • Used in computer chips and solar cells
  • Germanium and Silicon are the most used.
  • B, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te, Po,
nonmetals
Nonmetals
  • Upper right side of periodic table (right of staircase)
  • Generally gases,
  • Generally brittle and dull
  • Poor conductors of heat and electricity
  • The only liquid at room temperature is Bromine, others are all gases
groups review
Groups-Review
  • 1-18 as you go Across in the periodic table.
valence electrons
Valence electrons
  • The number of electrons occupying the outermost energy level.
  • 1-8, s and p blocks.
  • 1-8 main group elements.
  • Each family has the SAME number of valence electrons.
blocks
blocks
  • s, p, d, f
review questions
Review Questions
  • The group with one valence electron and very reactive with water is the…..

Alkali metals

review questions1
Review Questions
  • The block that contains alkali metals and alkaline earth metals.

S block

review questions2
Review Questions
  • The elements that are ON the staircase are referred to as……..because they have both properties of metals and nonmetals.

metalloids

review questions3
Review Questions
  • Fluorine is in the family…..

halogens

review questions4
Review Questions
  • Group 13 contains how many valence electrons?

3

review questions5
Review Questions
  • Group 18 contains how many valence electrons?

8 except for Helium which only contains 2

review questions6
Review Questions
  • These elements are good conductors of heat and electricity and make up most of the elements on the periodic table.

metals

review questions7
Review Questions
  • These are mostly gases at room temperature except Bromine which is a liquid at room temperature.

nonmetals

review questions8
Review Questions
  • At atom that loses an electron is termed a….

cation

review questions9
Review Questions
  • An atom that gains an electron is termed an….

anion