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Bubonic Plague PowerPoint Presentation
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Bubonic Plague

Bubonic Plague

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Bubonic Plague

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  1. Yersiniapestis Bubonic Plague

  2. What is the Plague?

  3. Disease Causing Agent • Gram negative, rod shaped bacteria • Yersiniapestis • Facultative anaerobe • Discovered in 1894 by Alexander Yersin • Swiss/French Physician and Bacteriologist

  4. Symptoms and Signs • Swelling of lymph nodes (buboes) • Acral gangrene • Fever • Chills • Coughing • Headache • Seizures • Nausea • Heavy breathing • Vomiting • Joint aching • Bleeding from ears

  5. Vectors and Transmission • Bacteria (pathogen) • Flea (in gut) • Rodent (carrier) • Human (in blood)

  6. Treatment • Antibiotics • Circulatory support • Ventilation • Renal support

  7. Plague through History

  8. The Plague of Justinian • 541 – 542, Byzantine Empire • Spread through Asia, North Africa, and Europe • Probably originated in Egypt or China • Killed as many as 5,000 people per day in Constantinople, for a total of ~40% of the population • ~25 million total deaths

  9. The Plague of Justinian

  10. The Black Death • 1347, Black Death hit Europe, killing around a third of the population • Originated near China, and first passed through Italy • Once sick, plague victims had approximately a 50% survival rate

  11. The Black Death • Killed around 25 million people in Europe • Estimated to have killed around 75 million people worldwide

  12. The Black Death • Doctors thought that the plague was caused by bad air • Many people wore flowers to ward off the ‘bad air’

  13. The Black Death • Controversial explanation of the “Ring Around the Rosie” children’s rhyme

  14. The Black Death • Monty Python

  15. The Third Plague Pandemic • 1855, started in China, spread worldwide • Lasted for approximately 100 years

  16. The Third Plague Pandemic • Killed 12 million people in India over 30 years • Came from endemic population living in rodents • Was stable, but a rebellion caused movement of populations out of the region • Did not hit mainland America, but did hit Hawaii (1899) and Puerto Rico (1912)

  17. The Third Plague Pandemic

  18. Plague Today • 10 – 15 cases in U.S. per year • 1,000 – 3,000 cases worldwide per year • Found in NM, AZ, CO, CA, & OR

  19. Plague in New Mexico http://nmhealth.org/ERD/HealthData/plague.shtml

  20. Plague in New Mexico http://nmhealth.org/ERD/HealthData/plague.shtml

  21. Biological Warfare • 14th century armies catapulted diseased corpses over city walls • 1940 Imperial Japanese Army bombed Chinese cities with plague fleas during the Second Sino-Japanese War • Concerns for the future…

  22. Biological Warfare • Classified by the CDC as a Category A Pathogen • Requires preparation for a possible terrorist attack

  23. Discussion Questions • What was the most important factor for plague to spread? • What made plague such a terrible disease? • What is the best way to prevent the spread of plague? • What would happen if plague was used as a biological weapon today? • Do you think there would be a pandemic?

  24. Assessment • List the transmission chain of bubonic plague. • What are 5 symptoms of this disease? • Why haven’t we eradicated plague like we did smallpox? • Approximately what percentage of the population of Europe died during the Black Death? • What did doctors think caused plague during the Black Death pandemic?

  25. Assessment 6. Write 8 to 12 sentences discussing whether bubonic plague is a major threat to national security today. Justify your position.

  26. Bibliography • Biddle, Wayne (2002). A Field Guide to Germs (2nd Anchor Books ed.). New York: Anchor Books. • McCormick, Michael (2007). "Toward a Molecular History of the Justinian Pandemic." In: Little, Lester K. editor. (2007), Plague and the End of Antiquity: The Pandemic of 541–750. Cambridge University Press. (2007). • Scott, Susan, and C. J. Duncan (2001). Biology of Plagues: Evidence from Historical Populations. Cambridge, UK; New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. • Bartelloni, Peter J.; Marshall, John D., Jr.; Cavanaugh, Dan C. (1973). "Clinical and serological responses to plague vaccine U.S.P". Military Medicine138 (11): 720–722. • Echenberg, Myron J. (2007). Plague Ports: The Global Urban Impact of Bubonic Plague, 1894-1901. New York, NY: New York University Press. • Echenberg,Myron (2002). PestisRedux: The Initial Years of the Third Bubonic Plague Pandemic, 1894-1901. Journal of World History,vol 13,2 • Echenberg,Myron (2002). PestisRedux: The Initial Years of the Third Bubonic Plague Pandemic, 1894-1901. Journal of World History,vol13,2