Download Presentation
## 8-Queens: Search Formulation #1

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

**Constraint Satisfaction Problems (CSP)(Where we delay**difficult decisions until they become easier) R&N:Chap. 6(These slides are primarily from a course at Stanford University – any mistakes were undoubtedly added by me.)**8-Queens: Search Formulation #1**• States: all arrangements of 0, 1, 2, ..., or 8 queens on the board • Initial state: 0 queen on the board • Successor function: each of the successors is obtained by adding one queen in a non-empty square • Arc cost:irrelevant • Goal test: 8 queens are on the board, with no two of them attacking each other 64x63x...x53 ~ 3x1014 states**8-Queens: Search Formulation #2**• States: all arrangements of k = 0, 1, 2, ..., or 8 queens in the k leftmost columns with no two queens attacking each other • Initial state: 0 queen on the board • Successor function: each successor is obtained by adding one queen in any square that is not attacked by any queen already in the board, in the leftmost empty column • Arc cost:irrelevant • Goal test: 8 queens are on the board 2,057 states**Issue**• Previous search techniques make choices in an often arbitrary order, even if there is still little information explicitly available to choose well. • There are some problems (called constraint satisfaction problems) whose states and goal test conform to a standard, structured, and very simple representation. • This representation views the problem as consisting of a set of variables in need of values that conform to certain constraint.**Issue**• In such problems, the same states can be reached independently of the order in which choices are made (commutative actions) • These problems lend themselves to general-purpose rather than problem-specific heuristics to enable the solution of large problems • Can we solve such problems more efficiently by picking the order appropriately? Can we even avoid having to make choices?**Constraint Propagation**• Place a queen in a square • Remove the attacked squares from future consideration**Constraint Propagation**5555567 6 6 5 5 5 5 6 • Count the number of non-attacked squares in every row and column • Place a queen in a row or column with minimum number • Remove the attacked squares from future consideration**Constraint Propagation**433345 3 4 4 3 3 5 • Repeat**Constraint Propagation**33343 4 3 2 3 4**Constraint Propagation**3331 4 2 2 1 3**Constraint Propagation**221 2 2 1**Constraint Propagation**12 2 1**What do we need?**• More than just a successor function and a goal test • We also need: • A means to propagate the constraints imposed by one queen’s position on the the positions of the other queens • An early failure test • Explicit representation of constraints • Constraint propagation algorithms**Constraint Satisfaction Problem (CSP)**• Set ofvariables {X1, X2, …, Xn} • Each variable Xi has a domain Di of possible values. Usually, Di is finite • Set of constraints{C1, C2, …, Cp} • Each constraint relates a subset of variables by specifying the valid combinations of their values • Goal: Assign a value to every variable such that all constraints are satisfied**Binary constraints**(each constraint relates only 2 variables) 8-Queens: Formulation #1 • 64 variables Xij, i = 1 to 8, j = 1 to 8 • The domain of each variable is: {1,0} • Constraints are of the forms: • Xij = 1 Xik = 0 for all k = 1 to 8, kj • Xij = 1 Xkj = 0 for all k = 1 to 8, ki • Similar constraints for diagonals • Si,j[1,8]Xij = 8**All constraints are binary**8-Queens: Formulation #2 • 8 variables Xi, i = 1 to 8 • The domain of each variable is: {1,2,…,8} • Constraints are of the forms: • Xi = k Xj k for all j = 1 to 8, ji • Similar constraints for diagonals**NT**Q WA SA NT NSW Q V WA SA T NSW V T Map Coloring • 7 variables {WA,NT,SA,Q,NSW,V,T} • Each variable has the same domain: {red, green, blue} • No two adjacent variables have the same value:WANT, WASA, NTSA, NTQ, SAQ, SANSW, SAV,QNSW, NSWV**Constraint graph**• Constraint graph:nodes are variables, arcs are constraints**A Cryptarithmetic Problem**• Here each constraint is a square box connected to the variables it constrains • allDiff; O + O = R + 10 * X1;…**2**3 4 1 5 Street Puzzle Ni = {English, Spaniard, Japanese, Italian, Norwegian} Ci= {Red, Green, White, Yellow, Blue} Di = {Tea, Coffee, Milk, Fruit-juice, Water} Ji = {Painter, Sculptor, Diplomat, Violinist, Doctor} Ai = {Dog, Snails, Fox, Horse, Zebra} The Englishman lives in the Red house The Spaniard has a Dog The Japanese is a Painter The Italian drinks Tea The Norwegian lives in the first house on the left The owner of the Green house drinks Coffee The Green house is on the right of the White house The Sculptor breeds Snails The Diplomat lives in the Yellow house The owner of the middle house drinks Milk The Norwegian lives next door to the Blue house The Violinist drinks Fruit juice The Fox is in the house next to the Doctor’s The Horse is next to the Diplomat’s Who owns the Zebra? Who drinks Water?**2**3 4 1 5 left as an exercise Street Puzzle Ni = {English, Spaniard, Japanese, Italian, Norwegian} Ci= {Red, Green, White, Yellow, Blue} Di = {Tea, Coffee, Milk, Fruit-juice, Water} Ji = {Painter, Sculptor, Diplomat, Violinist, Doctor} Ai = {Dog, Snails, Fox, Horse, Zebra} (Ni = English) (Ci = Red) The Englishman lives in the Red house The Spaniard has a Dog The Japanese is a Painter The Italian drinks Tea The Norwegian lives in the first house on the left The owner of the Green house drinks Coffee The Green house is on the right of the White house The Sculptor breeds Snails The Diplomat lives in the Yellow house The owner of the middle house drinks Milk The Norwegian lives next door to the Blue house The Violinist drinks Fruit juice The Fox is in the house next to the Doctor’s The Horse is next to the Diplomat’s (Ni = Japanese) (Ji = Painter) (N1 = Norwegian) (Ci = White) (Ci+1 = Green) (C5 White) (C1 Green)**2**3 4 1 5 Street Puzzle Ni = {English, Spaniard, Japanese, Italian, Norwegian} Ci= {Red, Green, White, Yellow, Blue} Di = {Tea, Coffee, Milk, Fruit-juice, Water} Ji = {Painter, Sculptor, Diplomat, Violinist, Doctor} Ai = {Dog, Snails, Fox, Horse, Zebra} (Ni = English) (Ci = Red) The Englishman lives in the Red house The Spaniard has a Dog The Japanese is a Painter The Italian drinks Tea The Norwegian lives in the first house on the left The owner of the Green house drinks Coffee The Green house is on the right of the White house The Sculptor breeds Snails The Diplomat lives in the Yellow house The owner of the middle house drinks Milk The Norwegian lives next door to the Blue house The Violinist drinks Fruit juice The Fox is in the house next to the Doctor’s The Horse is next to the Diplomat’s (Ni = Japanese) (Ji = Painter) (N1 = Norwegian) (Ci = White) (Ci+1 = Green) (C5 White) (C1 Green) unaryconstraints**2**3 4 1 5 i,j[1,5], ij, Ni Nj i,j[1,5], ij, Ci Cj ... Street Puzzle Ni = {English, Spaniard, Japanese, Italian, Norwegian} Ci= {Red, Green, White, Yellow, Blue} Di = {Tea, Coffee, Milk, Fruit-juice, Water} Ji = {Painter, Sculptor, Diplomat, Violinist, Doctor} Ai = {Dog, Snails, Fox, Horse, Zebra} The Englishman lives in the Red house The Spaniard has a Dog The Japanese is a Painter The Italian drinks Tea The Norwegian lives in the first house on the left The owner of the Green house drinks Coffee The Green house is on the right of the White house The Sculptor breeds Snails The Diplomat lives in the Yellow house The owner of the middle house drinks Milk The Norwegian lives next door to the Blue house The Violinist drinks Fruit juice The Fox is in the house next to the Doctor’s The Horse is next to the Diplomat’s**2**3 4 1 5 Street Puzzle Ni = {English, Spaniard, Japanese, Italian, Norwegian} Ci= {Red, Green, White, Yellow, Blue} Di = {Tea, Coffee, Milk, Fruit-juice, Water} Ji = {Painter, Sculptor, Diplomat, Violinist, Doctor} Ai = {Dog, Snails, Fox, Horse, Zebra} The Englishman lives in the Red house The Spaniard has a Dog The Japanese is a Painter The Italian drinks Tea The Norwegian lives in the first house on the left N1 = Norwegian The owner of the Green house drinks Coffee The Green house is on the right of the White house The Sculptor breeds Snails The Diplomat lives in the Yellow house The owner of the middle house drinks Milk D3 = Milk The Norwegian lives next door to the Blue house The Violinist drinks Fruit juice The Fox is in the house next to the Doctor’s The Horse is next to the Diplomat’s**2**3 4 1 5 Street Puzzle Ni = {English, Spaniard, Japanese, Italian, Norwegian} Ci= {Red, Green, White, Yellow, Blue} Di = {Tea, Coffee, Milk, Fruit-juice, Water} Ji = {Painter, Sculptor, Diplomat, Violinist, Doctor} Ai = {Dog, Snails, Fox, Horse, Zebra} The Englishman lives in the Red house C1 Red The Spaniard has a Dog A1 Dog The Japanese is a Painter The Italian drinks Tea The Norwegian lives in the first house on the left N1 = Norwegian The owner of the Green house drinks Coffee The Green house is on the right of the White house The Sculptor breeds Snails The Diplomat lives in the Yellow house The owner of the middle house drinks Milk D3 = Milk The Norwegian lives next door to the Blue house The Violinist drinks Fruit juice J3 Violinist The Fox is in the house next to the Doctor’s The Horse is next to the Diplomat’s**Finite vs. Infinite CSP**• Finite CSP: each variable has a finite domain of values • InfiniteCSP: some or all variables have an infinite domainE.g., linear programming problems over the reals: • We will only consider finite CSP**What does CSP Buy You?**• Each of these problems has a standard pattern – a set of variables that need to be assigned values that conform to a set of constraints. • Successors function and a Goal test predicate can be written that works for any such problem. • Generic Heuristics can be used for solving that require NO DOMAIN-SPECIFIC EXPERTISE • The constraint graph structure can be used to simplify the search process.**CSP as a Search Problem**• n variables X1, ..., Xn • Valid assignment: {Xi1 vi1, ..., Xik vik}, 0 k n, such that the values vi1, ..., vik satisfy all constraints relating the variables Xi1, ..., Xik • States: valid assignments • Initial state: empty assignment (k = 0) • Successor of a state: {Xi1vi1, ..., Xikvik} {Xi1vi1, ..., Xikvik, Xik+1vik+1} • Goal test: complete assignment (k = n)**How to solve?**• States: valid assignments • Initial state: empty assignment (k = 0) • Successor of a state: {Xi1vi1, ..., Xikvik} {Xi1vi1, ..., Xikvik, Xik+1vik+1} • Goal test: complete assignment (k = n) • NOTE: If “regular” search algorithm is used, the branching factor is quite large since the successor function must try (1) all unassigned variables, and (2) for each of those variables, try all possible values**The order in which variables are assigned values has no**impact on the assignment reached A Key property of CSP: Commutativity Hence: One can generate the successors of a node by first selecting one variable and then assigning every value in the domain of this variable [ big reduction in branching factor]**4 variables X1, ..., X4**• Let the current assignment be: A = {X1 v1, X3 v3} • (For example) pick variable X4 • Let the domain of X4 be {v4,1, v4,2, v4,3} • The successors of A are {X1 v1, X3 v3 , X4 v4,1 } {X1 v1, X3 v3 , X4 v4,2 } {X1 v1, X3 v3 , X4 v4,3 }**The order in which variables are assigned values has no**impact on the assignment reached A Key property of CSP: Commutativity Hence: One can generate the successors of a node by first selecting one variable and then assigning every value in the domain of this variable [ big reduction in branching factor] One need not store the path to a node Backtracking search algorithm**Backtracking Search**Essentially a simplified depth-first algorithm using recursion**Backtracking Search(3 variables)**Assignment = {}**Backtracking Search(3 variables)**X1 v11 Assignment = {(X1,v11)}**Backtracking Search(3 variables)**X1 v11 X3 v31 Assignment = {(X1,v11), (X3,v31)}**Then, the search algorithm**backtracks to the previous variable and tries another value Backtracking Search(3 variables) X1 v11 X3 v31 X2 Assume that no value of X2 leads to a valid assignment Assignment = {(X1,v11), (X3,v31)}**Backtracking Search(3 variables)**X1 v11 X3 v31 v32 X2 Assignment = {(X1,v11), (X3,v32)}**Backtracking Search(3 variables)**The search algorithm backtracksto the previous variable (X3) and tries another value. But assume that X3 has only two possible values. The algorithm backtracks to X1 X1 v11 X3 v31 v32 X2 X2 Assume again that no value of X2 leads to a valid assignment Assignment = {(X1,v11), (X3,v32)}**Backtracking Search(3 variables)**X1 v11 v12 X3 v31 v32 X2 X2 Assignment = {(X1,v12)}**Backtracking Search(3 variables)**X1 v11 v12 X3 X2 v31 v32 v21 X2 X2 Assignment = {(X1,v12), (X2,v21)}**The algorithm need not consider**the variables in the same order in this sub-tree as in the other Backtracking Search(3 variables) X1 v11 v12 X3 X2 v31 v32 v21 X2 X2 Assignment = {(X1,v12), (X2,v21)}**Backtracking Search(3 variables)**X1 v11 v12 X3 X2 v31 v32 v21 X2 X2 X3 v32 Assignment = {(X1,v12), (X2,v21), (X3,v32)}**Backtracking Search(3 variables)**X1 v11 v12 X3 X2 v31 v32 v21 The algorithm need not consider the values of X3 in the same order in this sub-tree X2 X2 X3 v32 Assignment = {(X1,v12), (X2,v21), (X3,v32)}**Backtracking Search(3 variables)**X1 v11 v12 X3 X2 v31 v32 v21 Since there are only three variables, the assignment is complete X2 X2 X3 v32 Assignment = {(X1,v12), (X2,v21), (X3,v32)}**Backtracking Algorithm**CSP-BACKTRACKING(A) • If assignment A is complete then return A • X select a variable not in A • D select an ordering on the domain of X • For each value v in D do • Add (Xv) to A • If A is valid then • result CSP-BACKTRACKING(A) • If result failure then return result • Return failure Call CSP-BACKTRACKING({}) [This recursive algorithm keeps too much data in memory. An iterative version could save memory (left as an exercise)]**{}**NT Q WA WA=red WA=green WA=blue SA NSW V WA=red NT=green WA=red NT=blue T WA=red NT=green Q=red WA=red NT=green Q=blue Map Coloring**Critical Questions for the Efficiency of CSP-Backtracking**• CSP-BACKTRACKING(a) • If assignment A is complete then return A • X selecta variable not in A • D select an ordering on the domain of X • For each value v in D do • Add (Xv) to A • If a is valid then • result CSP-BACKTRACKING(A) • If result failure then return result • Return failure