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The Confederation and the Constitution. Although the Revolutionary War brought new changes to American society, during the Critical Period the new nation was challenged with an inefficient government. -Post Revolutionary War changes -Articles of Confederation -Constitutional Convention

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the confederation and the constitution

The Confederation and the Constitution

Although the Revolutionary War brought new changes to American society, during the Critical Period the new nation was challenged with an inefficient government.

-Post Revolutionary War changes

-Articles of Confederation

-Constitutional Convention

-Ratification

i post revolutionary war changes
I. Post Revolutionary War Changes

A. Social Changes

  • Less conservative
  • More egalitarian
    • Cincinnati Society
    • Anti-slavery somewhat
    • Republican motherhood
  • Separation of Church/State
    • VA Statute on Religious Freedom, 1786
  • State governments evolve
    • Constitutional convention
    • Fundamental law
    • All: BofR & weak EX and JU
  • Economic Challenges
    • 1780’s depression
    • Foreign Trade Barriers
ii articles of confederation
II. Articles of Confederation
  • Need for a Constitution
    • CC had no constitutional authority
    • Ratification dragged on, 1781
  • Provisions
    • Congress chief agency
    • Each state single vote
    • Bills required 2/3 vote
    • Amendments consent
  • Strengths
    • Western Expansion

a. Land and Northwest Ordinances

  • Weaknesses (intentional)
    • Couldn’t regulate commerce or tax
      • Newburgh Conspiracy, 1783
      • Shay’s Rebellion, 1786
      • State bickering
iii the constitutional convention
III. The Constitutional Convention
  • Annapolis Convention, 1786
  • Philadelphia Convention, 1787
  • Objective?
  • Issues
    • Representation
      • Large (proportional representation) v. Small states (equal representation)
    • Executive Branch
      • Electoral College
    • Slavery
      • 3/5’s Compromise, Slave Trade, Fugitive Slave laws
    • Commerce
  • Principles of Government
    • Checks and Balances
    • The “elastic clause”
    • The “Supremacy Clause”
    • Conservative Safeguards
    • No Bill of Rights
iv ratification
IV. Ratification
  • Debates in state conventions
    • NH (1788)
    • VA

a. James Mason

    • NY
      • The Federalist Papers
  • federalists
    • Well-educated, seaboard.
    • AofC weak, support strong central/national government, no need for Bill of Rights.
  • anti-federalists

1. Back country farmers, ill-educated, and debtors

    • AofC was good, opposed strong central/national government, wanted Bill of Rights.
strengthening of the federal government
Articles of Confederation

Loose Confederation

1 legislative vote per state

2/3 vote for bills

No Congressional power over commerce

No congressional power to tax

No federal courts

Unanimity of states for amendment

Constitution

Firm federation

At least 3 legislative votes

Simple majority for bills

Congress regulate commerce

Congress can tax

Federal courts

Amendments less difficult

More Conservative

Strengthening of the Federal Government?
practice putting things in order
Practice: Putting Things in Order

__ Fifty-five “demi-gods” meet secretly in Philadelphia to draft a new charter of government.

__ The first American national government, more a league of states than a real government, goes into effect.

__ At the request of Congress, the states draft new constitutions based on the authority of the people.

__ The Constitution is ratified by the nine states necessary to put it into effect.

__ Debtor farmers fail in a rebellion, setting off conservative fears and demands for a stronger government to control anarchy.

answers
Answers

4, 2, 1, 5, 3