The Confederation & the Constitution Chapter 9
Pursuit of Equality • States reduced property-holding requirements for voting. • Men & women demanded to be called Mr. & Mrs. • Employers “Boss”, not “Master”. • Freed Indentured Servants • Separation between church & state • Each state dealt with this issue differently.
Post-War Slavery • Several Northern states openly abolished slavery. • However, openly discriminated against . • Barred from purchasing property. • Holding certain jobs. • Educating their children. • Interracial marriage
Question????? • Why, in this dawning democratic age,, did abolition not go further and cleanly blot out the evil of slavery from the fresh face of the new nation?
Republican Motherhood • Women were responsible for making people good citizens. • Educational opportunities opened up. • Other jobs outside of the home were very limited. • Women could not vote.
Post-war Economic Effects • American ships were now barred from British and British West Indies harbors. • Ship building disrupted. • Opened foreign trade markets, allowed America to trade with Asia (China)
Shaky Start • Yes, now we have independence……….okay now what? • 13 sovereign states with similar constitutions. • Strong political leaders • James Madison • John Adams • Thomas Jefferson • George Washington • Alexander Hamilton
Creating a Confederation • 2nd Continental Congress • Createdof the Articles of Confederation • Adopted 1777 • First plan for gov’t.
Achievements of the Articles • Established a fair policy for how to deal with new lands • Signed peace treaty with England. • Set up several cabinet departments.
New States • Land Ordinance of 1785: surveyed NW territory • Northwest Ordinance of 1787: set standards for statehood, carved area into states
Houston we have a problem! • Unanimous approval of all 13 independent states were required to amend the Articles. • No executive branch. • Single vote for each state. • Congress was weak • No power to regulate commerce • No power to levy taxes • No central court system
War Debt • Who was going to pay for it? • What was fair?
Need for a Stronger Government • States began to fight over boundary lines & tariffs. • Huge debt to other countries. • Over $40 million • Could not maintain army for defense.
Problems within the States • Country was running out of money • Some states refused to pay taxes of war debt. • States have different currency • Shay’s Rebellion
Shay’s Rebellion, 1787 • W. Massachusetts's, Daniel Shay. • Angry veterans & farmers stripped of their land due to financial depression shut down court house and make demands. • “Rebellion” put down by wealth conservatives in Boston who raised an army. • Effect: Panic & the Constitutional Convention
The Constitutional Convention Major Issues debated: 1. representation of small and large states 2. would slaves be counted? 3. strong central government vs. strong states
Virginia Plan • Strong legislature w/ 2 chambers, both based on population • Strong executive branch • Strong judicial branch • All approved & appointed by the legislature.
New Jersey Plan • Wanted to keep most of the Articles of Confederation. • Unicameral • One vote for each state. • Can impose taxes & regulate taxes. • Wanted a weak executive consisting of more than one person elected by Congress. • Judicial - limited power appointed by executive. • States remain independent.
Connecticut Compromise“The Great Compromise” • Bicameral Legislative Branch: • House of Representatives (based on population) • Senate (2 members from each state)
3/5 Compromise • 1/3 of people in Southern states were enslaved. • What’s the effect? • Why would the North concede?
Other Compromises • How to elect the president? • Electoral College System: state selects electors to choose president. • Term Length? • 4 year term. • Ratification? • 9 out of 13 states had to ratify (approve Constitution)
Federalists • Favored the Constitution • Feared “mobocracy” • Merchants • Strong Central Government • No Bill of Rights
Anti-Federalists • Opposed the Constitution • Farmers/Laborers • Weak Central Government • Favored States Rights • Wanted the Bill of Rights