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7. Fixed and mobile convergence and transition to IMS platform. 7.1. Common remarks and definitions 7.2. FMC motivations 7.3. FMC service architecture 7.4. FMC and UMTS 7.5. FMC and IN solutions 7.6. FMC and IMS platform. In competitive markets - operators’ main challenges - new market

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7 fixed and mobile convergence and transition to ims platform
7. Fixed and mobile convergence and transition to IMS platform

7.1. Common remarks and definitions

7.2. FMC motivations

7.3. FMC service architecture

7.4. FMC and UMTS

7.5. FMC and IN solutions

7.6. FMC and IMS platform

7 1 common remarks and definitions

In competitive markets - operators’ main challenges - new market

  • opportunities/comprehensive solutions and services
  • Convergence of fixed and mobile networks – for what?
  • Fixed network operators - mobility enhances the service portfolio leading to
  • an improved service differentiation strategy
  • Mobile network operators - fixed network allows the carrier to become a full
  • service provider
  • Fixed-Mobile Convergencecovers two main aspects: infrastructure and services. Infrastructure aspect deals with the capability of different network elements: switches, Intelligent Network (IN), or NGN, and Telecommunication Management Network (TMN) or Customer Care and Billing System (CC&BS) to support fixed or mobile applications. Services aspect is related to the different fixed-mobile convergence services that can be proposed to users (residential or professional subscribers).
7.1. Common remarks and definitions
infrastructure convergence4
Infrastructure convergence

ESP – External Service Point

SCE – Service Creation Point

SCP – Service Control Point

SMP – Service Management Point

SSP – Service Switching Point

SSF – Service Switching Function


Service convergence







Multimedia Communications

The combination of fixed and mobile networks- Fixed Mobile

Convergence (FMC)

# Any combination of mobile and fixed access, voice, video and data services

decrease operational costs by using common resources - transport, OA&M

# FMC implementation leads to a new market with unique list of services and

high revenue potential

Fixed-Mobile Convergence allows network and service operators to make more

efficient use of existing access technologies (GSM, DSL, Wi-Fi), as well as

taking an advantage of the roll-out of new access technologies such as 2.5/3G,

WLAN, Bluetooth, Wi-Max UMA, etc, by launching new voice & multimedia

services and realizing cost reductions by implementing common service

machinery for different access networks.

Fixed-Mobile Convergence allows users to connect to complementary access networks, buy and use a wider range of personalized services using fewer terminal devices. The primary device will be portable and for most applications it will be a multi-radio device, supporting voice and multimedia services.

Users can be contacted with a single number independent of the network connection. The target of convergence is to enable easy implementation for the operator and service provider, and easy usage of services for end users. This will enable true mobility for users in both the residential and business environment.

statistics for mobile and fixed networks
Statistics for mobile and fixed networks

# According ITU a number of global wireless phone subscribers exceeded the number

of wireline subscribers in 2002

# In 2005 worldwide projections are for about 1.2 billion wireline subscribers and

almost 2 billion wireless subscribers

# Wireline subscribers’ annual growth estimated at 2% and wireless growth at 10%

# While mobile phone operators have seen phenomenal growth in their market,

competition has eroded their average revenue per user

  • ARPU

Europe - Euro 14 – 35

USA - Euro 34

Japan - Euro 60

definition of fmc
Definition of FMC

The following definition of FMC is based on the ETSI FMC ad hoc workgroup docs:

Fixed and Mobile Convergence (FMC) is concerned with the provision of network and service capabilities, which are independent of the access technique. This does not necessarily imply the physical convergence of networks. It is concerned with the development of converged network capabilities and supporting standards. This set of standards may be used to offer a set of consistent services via fixed or mobile access to fixed or mobile, public or private networks.

An important feature of FMC is to allow users to access a consistent set of services from any fixed or mobile terminal via any compatible access point. An important extension of this principle is related to roaming: users should be able to roam between different networks and be able to use the same consistent set of services through those visited networks. This feature is referred to as the Virtual Home Environment (VHE).

7 2 fmc motivations
7.2. FMC motivations
  • Customer motivations – more mobility with required list of services
  • # The FMC greatest benefits - for the end-user
  • # Mobility of people and the need to communicate on the move are increased and
  • therefore the demand for mobile communications
  • # Conventional fixed networks continue to serve the home or the office
  • # Wide range of services within a uniform network and mobile connection is most
  • important
  • # Low costs and quality standards regarding reliability, security, etc.
  • Three aspects of mobility - terminal/service/personal mobility:
  • Terminal mobilityallows the customer the use of his (personal) terminal, e.g. his telephone at any place, at home, in the office or en route even abroad
  • Service mobilityprovides for the customer an invariable set of services independent of the access type and location. The services should have the “same look and feel” even in different networks
  • Personal mobilitymeans reachability in the sense, that the customer is reachable with one number, his personal number, everywhere. He can define several reachability profiles (private, office) and he can change his profiles, especially the terminal where he wants his calls to arrive, on line from any terminal
7 2 fmc motivations cntd

Operator motivations – better position on the market –increasing revenue, gaining new users

  • # FMC can be understood as a marketing strategy to attract new customers by
  • launching new innovative products
  • # Offering customized set of attractive services: (VPN, VHE, …)
  • # IN Services developed in fixed networks - Call Forwarding, Personal Number
  • # Services developed in mobile networks - Prepaid Service, SMS
  • # Investment cost saving (HW/SW for billing, IN equipment,…)
  • # Operational cost savings (common OAM processes, common numbering plan,…)
7.2. FMC motivations (Cntd)
7 4 fmc and umts
7.4. FMC and UMTS

UMTS characteristics in relation to FMC

The following UMTS characteristics can be identified as potential

enablers for FMC:

A. UMTS service capabilities

B. UMTS radio interface applicability to a wide range of application


C. FMC application scenarios in relation to UMTS

a umts service capabilities
A. UMTS service capabilities
  • The service capabilities associated with UMTS networks will provide the same service portfolio as ISDN and packet data networks. To allow for the multimedia services support the following requirements have been set in UMTS technical specifications: 
  • High speed data bearers (urban/suburban at least with 384 kbit/s for users moving at 120km/h; indoor at least with 2Mbps for users moving at 10km/h), both for circuit and packet data
  • Multiple QoS classes for packet data (still to be defined)
  • Multiple media components during one and the same call
  • Add/delete resources and parties in multi-party calls
b umts radio interface applicability to a wide range of application environments
B. UMTS radio interface applicability to a wide range of application environments

UMTS terrestrial radio interface (UTRA)

The UMTS terrestrial radio interface UTRA provides the W-CDMA mode and the TD-CDMA mode

The W-CDMA mode - for public macro- and micro-cell environments and paired spectrum allocations and for data rates up to 2 Mbit/s

The TD-CDMA mode - for public micro- and pico-cell environments, for unlicensed cordless and public wireless local loops, unpaired spectrum allocations and for data rates up to 2 Mbit/s (asymmetric traffic)

c fmc application scenarios in relation to umts
C. FMC application scenarios in relation to UMTS
  • Main target of FMC - roaming in fixed and mobile networks and seamless handover between different networks (fixed/cellular/wireless)
  • 1. UMTS Cordless Access- connection of cordless telephones with UMTS radio interface
  • UMTS users roaming between home cell and the public cellular network
  • Single number and access to the converged services in both environments
  • Personal and terminal mobility is offered between private and public networks.
  • 2. Fixed access personal mobility with UMTS/USIM card
  • A subset of UMTS services may be offered via wireline terminals
  • The subscriber uses the USIM (User Service Identity Module) card to get access to
  • these services
  • FMC building blocks extend the UMTS virtual home environment of the cellular network to the fixed network
3 fmc and virtual home environment vhe
3. FMC and Virtual Home Environment (VHE)
  • Motivation
  • UMTS concept - customers get services anytime, independent of the access technology and the core network
  • UMTS aims to provide to the user a comprehensive set of services, features and tools, which have the same “look and feel” whether they are used at home or abroad
  • Virtual Home Environment (VHE) - ETSIconcept - a system concept for service portability across network borders
  • Relation of VHE concept and FMC concept:
  • - VHE allows a service provider (incl. fixed or mobile network operator) to offer services independent of the core network and access; ”seamless services” both in the fixed and the mobile network
CAMEL services for FMC/VHE applications in UMTSCustomized Applications for Mobile Enhanced Logic (CAMEL)
the camel based vhe solution
The CAMEL-based VHE solution
  • The GSM solution for transparent service availability at a visited cellular network is based on the concept of the Customized Applications for Mobile Enhanced Logic (CAMEL).
  • The CAMEL concept allows for a VHE encompassing a subscriber’s home mobile network and any visited mobile network that has a CAMEL roaming agreement with the home network. Thus the mobile subscriber when roaming in a visited network can use the (non-standardized) IN services subscribed in his home network.
  • To achieve this, the Mobile Switching Centers (MSCs) of the visited networks can communicate directly with the home network’s Switching Control Point (SCP) by means of a completely standardized INAP protocol - theCAMEL Application Part (CAP). The SCP is inquired for call control guidance during incoming and outgoing calls.
the camel based vhe solution21
The CAMEL-based VHE solution
  • The conditions for triggering the SCP are administered in theHome Location register (HLR) and are downloaded to the Visited Location Register (VLR) when the subscriber roams between location areas. In addition, the Mobile Application Part (MAP) protocol applied between SCP and HLR allows for the SCP to request subscriber status and location information in order to assist the service logic programs in deciding how the call should be further progressed (“Any Time Interrogation” procedure).
  • Because the visited network is transparent for the service execution, this scenario is also referred ”service tunneling” or ”service remote execution”. However, in some cases the visited network may not be able to support the desired service or the storage and execution of the appropriate data.
  • The GSM CAMEL VHE mechanism is adapted to UMTS. Hereby the functional network model of GSM CAMEL will be kept, but the used protocols MAP and CAP between the network entities are modified in order to support new UMTS capabilities.
7 6 fmc and in solutions
7.6. FMC and IN solutions
  • Common IN platform for both networks provides following features:
  • support of new access technologies for network operators, service
  • providers, companies and end-users;
  • IN-supported number conversion between fixed and mobile networks;
  • IN-controlled creation of individual billing records for flexible and simple
  • billing; expenses are reduced due to the use of a single infrastructure for
  • both networks.
  • Only standardized interfaces are used for the broadest range of network
  • elements from various manufacturers:
  • MAP (Mobile Application Part) - to localize mobile subscribers,
  • INAP (Intelligent Network Application Part) to communicate between IN
  • systems and the base networks.

Personal Number (PN)

The "Personal Number Service" means that the customer is available round the clock at a single personal phone number, regardless of whether located in a fixed or a mobile network. User-specific profiles managed by the user define whose calls shall get through, when and where. Also, incoming calls can be diverted to a single mailbox.

Fixed Mobile Convergence and Virtual Private Network (FMC-VPN)

The VPN under FMC conditions offers a series of improved performance features for fixed and mobile networks in form of an extended version of classic VPN service (= defined user group with access to the short numbers for the individual members and special rates). For example, the same short number can be used both on the mobile device and on the device connected at the fixed connection. Separate billing of private and business calls makes the invoice easy to read for the company and their staff. This service is suitable when combined with individual rate systems — especially for companies with various locations, fixed and mobile personnel and temporary staff.


Friends & Family (F&F)

This service allows the end-user to define several telephone numbers that enjoy lower rates. The F&F list may contain the numbers of business partners, family members or friends who are called frequently, whereby special rates are valid for both the fixed and the mobile network. The end-user can easily administer these preferred numbers via a fixed network telephone, his mobile phone or the Internet.

Prepaid Service (PPS)

PPS was created for those customers who would rather not bind themselves by long-term contracts to any one fixed or mobile network operator, but who also do not want to lose the added value of integrated fixed and mobile networks. This service allows customers to communicate via fixed terminals or mobile phones and they will be charged to one single account paid in advance. The account balance is constantly kept up-to-date. The customer has clear control of his communications expenses through checking his account balance and through the various ways of renewing the account by individually defined amounts of money.

7 6 fmc and network evolution to the ims platform
7.6. FMC and network evolution to the IMS platform

IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) is a new framework, basically specified for

mobile networks, for providing Internet Protocol (IP) telecommunications


It has been introduced by the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) in

two phases (release 5 and release 6) for Universal Mobile Telecommunications

System (UMTS) networks. An IP multimedia framework was later introduced

by 3GPP2 as the MultiMedia Domain (MMD) for third generation Code Division

Multiple Access 2000 (CDMA2000) networks.

concept of the ip multimedia subsystem ims
Concept of the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS)

The IP Multimedia Subsystemis an open, standardized, NGN multi-media

architecture for mobile and fixed IP-based services. It's a VoIP

implementation based on a 3GPP variant of SIP, and runs over the

standard Internet protocol. It's used by Telcos in NGN networks (which

combine voice and data in a single packet switched network), to offer network

controlled multimedia services.

The aim of IMS is not only to provide new services but to provide all the

services, current and future, that the Internet provides. In addition, users

have to be able to execute all their services when roaming as well as

from their home networks. To achieve these goals the IMS uses open

standard IP protocols, defined by the IETF.

ims concept cntd
IMS concept (Cntd.)

So, a multi-media session between 2 IMS users,

between an IMS user and a user on the Internet,

and between 2 users on the Internet is established

using exactly the same protocol. Moreover, the

interfaces for service developers are also based in

IP protocols. This is why the IMS truly merges the

Internet with the cellular world; it uses cellular

technologies to provide ubiquitous access and

Internet technologies to provide appealing services.

ims concept cntd28
IMS concept (Cntd.)

The IMS concept was introduced to address the following network and user


• Deliver person-to-person real-time IP-based multimedia communications

(e.g. voice or video telephony) as well as person-to-machine communications

(e.g. gaming service).

• Fully integrate real-time with non-real-time multimedia communications

(e.g. live streaming and chat).

  • Enable different services and applications to interact (e.g. combined use

of presence and instant messaging).

• Easy user setup of multiple services in a single session or multiple

simultaneous synchronized sessions.

ims solution overview
IMS solution overview

Source: Alcatel

history of ims
History of IMS
  • IMS first appeared in release 5 of the evolution from 2G to 3G networks for W-CDMA networks (UMTS), when SIP-based multimedia domain was added to NGN networks. Support for older GSM and GPRS networks is also provided.
  • In 3GPP release 6, interworking with WLAN was added.
  • 3GPP release 7 adds support for fixed networks, together with TISPAN* R1.
  • "Early IMS" is defined for IPv4 networks, and provides a migration path to IPv6

TISPAN - Telecoms & Internet converged Services & Protocols for Advanced Networks


evolution of umts technical specifications to release 5 rel 5 of the 3gpp transition to ims
Evolution of UMTS Technical Specifications to Release 5 (Rel’5) of the 3GPP – Transition to IMS

Release 1999 (R’99) in April 1999 - the initial standards for UMTS were

completed by 3GPP. These standards are the basis for a majority of the

current commercially deployed UMTS systems

Release 4 (Rel’4) in April 2001 was standardized in 3GPP, which provided

some improvements of the UMTS transport, radio interface and architecture.

Rel’5 of UMTS was completed in March 2002 - next significant evolution phase

of UMTS. UMTS Rel’5 will provide higher speed wireless data services with

vastly improved spectral efficiencies through the High Speed Downlink Packet

Access (HSDPA) feature.

release 5 rel 5 of the 3gpp
Release 5 (Rel’5) of the 3GPP

High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) offers significantly higher

data capacity and data user speeds on the downlink (theoretically up to 14

Mbps peak) compared to R’99 UMTS through the use of very dynamic adaptive

modulation, coding and scheduling with Hybrid Automatic Retransmission

Request (H-ARQ) processing.

Through HSDPA, operators will benefit from a technology that will provide

improved end-user experience for Web access, file download and streaming

Services,Wireless Broadband access to the Internet, intranet and corporate

LAN will benefit greatly from HSDPA.

release 5 rel 5 of the 3gpp cntd
Release 5 (Rel’5) of the 3GPP (Cntd.)

In addition to HSDPA, UMTS Rel’5 introduces the IP Multimedia System

(IMS) architecture that promises to greatly enhance the end-user experience

for Integrated multimedia applications and offer the mobile operator an

efficient means for offering such services.

The IMS enables new and more advanced multimedia applications for

operators (including VoIP), the ability for these services to interact and the

ability to fully integrate real-time, near real-time as well as non-real time


UMTS Rel’5 also introduces the IP UTRAN concept to realize network

efficiencies and reduce network costs. IP UTRAN uses IP as a transport

protocol to realize network efficiencies that reduce the cost of delivering

traffic and can provide wireless traffic routing flexibility.