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# 5. Predetermined Time System - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

5. Predetermined Time System. Classifications. Advantages of predetermined times. Setting standards for a very short motions (very hard to evaluate using other measures) Standard “language” of documenting sequences of elements which define operations

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### 5. Predetermined Time System

• Setting standards for a very short motions (very hard to evaluate using other measures)

• Standard “language” of documenting sequences of elements which define operations

• Enable to determine standard times for new operations for whom we don’t have past data

• Enable to compare different methods of performing a new task (before applying the preferred method)

• Usable for workers training

• The data for the development of MTM was obtained from motion pictures (using mechanical cameras) of skilled workers performing a wide range of motions

• Influence factors were identified and isolated in the motion analysis

• The influence factors became the motion characteristics which are used for determining the standard times

• Each motion was separately defined and tabulated for setting the standard times

• MTM was accepted as a standard method in many countries all over the world

• Basic time unit: TMU = time Measurement Unit

1 TMU = 0.00001 hour

= 0.0006 min

= 0.036 sec

This time unit was a result of the picture technology

• This time unit enable investigating much shorter motions (around 3-4 hundredth of a second) than using a stopwatch

• A procedure which analyses manual work into a basic motions required to perform it

• The procedure assigns to each motion a pre-determined time standard which is influenced by the environmental conditions

• Based on 23 basic motions and consists of approximately 5,000 time values (4,988)

• Reach (R): move the hand or finger to a destination – affected by the length of the motion and the type of reach

• Move (M): transport an object to a destination – affected by length of a motion, the weight of the object and the type of move

• Grasp (G): secure sufficient control on one or more objects with the fingers or hand in order to permit the performance of the next required motion – affected by the size shape and location of the object

• Position (P): align, orient, and engage object with another object (when only minor motions required) – affected by the ease of handling, symmetry and the amount of pressure required for insertion

• Release (RL): relinquish control of an object by the fingers or hand

• Disengage (D): break contact between one object to another – affected by the amount of effort required

• Turn (T): the motion employed to turn the hand, either empty or loaded, by a movement that rotates the hand, wrist, and forearm about the long axis of the forearm – affected by the degree of rotation and by the weight of the object

• Apply pressure (AP)

• Eye Travel (ET): considered only when the eyes must direct the hand or the body movements (includes eye focus and eye travel time) – affected by the distance between the travel points and the distance between the eye to the line of travel

• Body leg and foot motion (BMF): other motions which are associated with the body and legs (walking, standing, bending etc.)

• MTM-2 (1965):

• Used for setting standard time for longer tasks

• Based on 9 basic motions and consists of 39 time values

• MTM-3 (1970):

• Consists of 4 categories of manual motions (10 time values):

• Handle, Transport, Step & foot motion, and Bend & arise

• MTM-V : Metal cutting operations

• MTM-C : Clerical work

• In MTM:

• the elements are stand alone and do not relate to the sequence of the operation

• In MOST:

• The compete sequence of the operation, which consists of smaller elements, is addressed

• Maynard Operation Sequence Technique

• Developed by Zandin (1980)

• Utilizes larger blocks of fundamental motions than MTM-1

• General Move

• A B G A B P A

• Controlled Move

• A B G M X I A

• Tool Use

• A B G A B P _ A B P A

• The General Move Sequence (for a free movement through air)

• The Controlled Move Sequence (for a movement in which the object remains in contact with a surface or is attached to another object during the movement)

• The Tool Use Sequence (for the use of common hand tools)

• It is much faster than traditional time study technique (e.g. Basic MOST is 40 times faster than MTM-1)

• Accuracy of up to 95% can be obtained

• It requires less documentation

• Time for therbligs is measured in Time Measurement Unit (TMU)

• 1 TMU = 0.00001 hour

= 0.0006 minute

= 0.036 second

• 1 hour = 100,000 TMU

• 1 minute = 1,667 TMU

• 1 second = 27.8 TMU

• Get cover, and place in front.

• Reach 24”, grasp, move 24” in front.

• Open cover.

• Reach the cover with other hand by 30”, grasp the flap of cover, disengage the flap with normal effort, turn flap by 120 degree.

• Remove spec from the cover, and place aside on table.

• Grasp the spec inside the cover, move it out of the frame by 4”, move it on the table by 30”

• Close the cover.

• Reach for the cover flap in other hand, turn the cover to close, apply slight pressure

• Put the cover aside.

• Move it back to previous position in 30”

• Get cover, and place in front.

• Reach 24”, grasp, move 24” in front.

• A1 B0 G1 A1 B0 P1 A0

• Open cover.

• Reach the cover with other hand by 30”, grasp the flap of cover, disengage the flap with normal effort, turn flap by 120 degree.

• A1 B0 G3 M1 X0 I0 A0

• Remove spec from the cover, and place aside on table.

• Grasp the spec inside the cover, move it out of the frame by 4”, move it on the table by 30”

• A1 B0 G3 A1 B0 P1 A0

• Close the cover.

• Reach for the cover flap in other hand, turn the cover to close, apply slight pressure

• A1 B0 G1 M3 X0 I0 A0

• Put the cover aside.

• Move it back to previous position in 30”

• A0 B0 G0 A1 B0 P1 A1