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UNIDO Expert Group Meeting on Industrial Energy Efficiency, Cogeneration and Climate Change 2 - 3 December 1999, Vienna. Biomass Cogeneration in ASEAN, GHG Mitigation Potential and the Barriers Dr. Ludovic Lacrosse, Arul Joe Mathias EC-ASEAN COGEN Programme.

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slide1

UNIDO Expert Group Meeting on Industrial Energy Efficiency, Cogeneration and Climate Change

  • 2 - 3 December 1999, Vienna

Biomass Cogeneration in ASEAN, GHG Mitigation Potential and the Barriers

Dr. Ludovic Lacrosse, Arul Joe Mathias

EC-ASEAN COGEN Programme

slide3

BIOMASS COGENERATION - APPLICATIONS

  • LARGE WOOD AND AGRO-INDUSTRIAL SECTORS
  • ASEAN countries are world leaders in many sectors
  • EC-ASEAN COGEN PROGRAMME FOCUSES ON
  • FOUR SECTORS
  • Rice
  • Sugar
  • Palm Oil
  • Wood
slide4

WOOD AND AGRO-INDUSTRIES - COMMON PRACTICE

  • Power requirements

From grid or diesel genset(s) or inefficient biomass plant

  • Process heat requirements

From oil boiler(s) or inefficient biomass boiler(s)

  • Biomass residues

Dumping, open-burning, incineration or

inefficient biomass boiler(s)

slide5

BIOMASS COGENERATION - CURRENT STATUS

  • Technology

Most advanced technologies are available

  • Economic viability

Pay-back period ranges from 2 to 5 years

  • Environmental performance

Local, regional and global benefits

  • Others

Sustainable development

slide6

SUGAR INDUSTRY

Process energy required:

25-30 kWh/tonne of sugarcane

0.4 tonne of steam

1 tonne of

sugarcane

100 - 120 kg

sugar

Waste:

290 kg Bagasse ~ 100 kWh

slide7

RICE INDUSTRY

Process energy required:

Paddy milling and drying: 30-60 kWh/tonne paddy

650-700 kg

White rice

1 tonne of

Paddy

Waste:

220 kg Husks ~ 90-125 kWh

slide8

PALM OIL INDUSTRY

Process energy required:

20-25 kWh/t

0.73 tonne of steam

1 tonne of fresh

fruit bunches

140 - 200 kg

palm oil

Waste:

600-700 kg POME ~ 20 m3 biogas

190 kg fibers + shells

230 kg empty

fruit bunches

}

~ 120 kWh

slide9

WOOD INDUSTRY: SAWMILLS

Energy Required:

Sawmill: 35 - 45 kWh/m3

1 m3 of Debarked

Wood Log

0.5 m3 Sawn Wood

Waste:

0.5 m3 Wood Residues ~ 80 kWh

slide10

WOOD INDUSTRY: PLYMILLS

Energy required:

Plywood: 110 kWh/m3 log + 1.2 tonne of steam

1 m3 of Debarked

Wood Log

0.5 m3 Plywood

Waste:

0.5 m3 Wood Residues ~ 120 kWh

slide11

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF BIOMASS COGENERATION

  • Substitution of fossil fuels
  • High energy efficiency leads to less emissions
  • Less contribution to acid rain phenomenon
  • Significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions
  • Elimination of unwanted solid wastes
slide13

METHODOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK FOR GHG EMISSION MITIGATION CALCULATIONS

  • INPUTS:
  • Amount of fossil fuel used
  • Fossil fuel properties
  • LHV
  • Emission factors
  • Efficiency/other data
  • INPUTS:
  • Power generation mix
  • Emission factors
  • Carbon content of fuels
  • Fuel properties
  • Specific fuel consumption
  • INPUTS:
  • Amount of biomass used
  • Biomass properties
  • N/C ratio
  • Emission factor
  • Other data
  • INPUTS:
  • Amount of biomass used
  • Biomass properties
  • LHV
  • Emission factors
  • Boiler efficiency/other data

CALCULATIONS

Emission from biomass

use in open-burning

(CO2, CH4, N2O)

Emission from fossil fuel

(CO2, CH4, N2O)

Emission from grid/diesel genset (CO2, CH4, N2O)

Emission from biomass in a combustion system

(CO2, CH4, N2O)

Global Warming Potential

Emission from biomass in a combustion system

(CO2, CH4, N2O in tonnes

of CO2 equivalent)

Emission from fossil fuel

(CO2, CH4, N2O in tonnes

of CO2 equivalent)

Emission from grid

(CO2, CH4, N2O in tonnes

of CO2 equivalent)

Emission from biomass

use in open-burning

(CO2, CH4, N2O in tonnes

of CO2 equivalent)

(+)

(+)

(+)

(-)

EMISSION MITIGATION POTENTIAL

Note: Sustainable biomass is CO2 neutral

slide15

CALCULATIONS FOR NATIONAL GRID EMISSIONS - DATA REQUIRED

  • Efficiency of coal, diesel, fuel oil and natural gas power plants
  • Lower heating values of fuels
  • Carbon content of fuel
  • Specific fuel consumption (kg/kWh)
  • Emission factors for utility boiler in kg/TJ
  • Electricity generation mix for the country
  • Transmission and distribution loss
slide18

EMISSION FACTORS

  • CO2 emission depends on:

Amount of carbon content in fuel

  • SOx emissions depends on:

Amount of sulphur content in fuel

  • Other emissions depends on:

Fuel type, technology, operating conditions

Maintenance and vintage of technology

slide19

CASE STUDY OF A WOOD WASTE-FIRED COGENERATION PLANT

Current scenario: 1.5 MWe wood waste-fired cogeneration

Old use of residues: Open-burning

Alternative scenario: Diesel genset for power generation +

fuel oil boiler for heat requirements

Quantity of residues used: 31,640 tonnes per year

Quantity replaced:

- Diesel power 10,125,000 kWh/year

- Fuel oil 2,251 tonnes/year

slide21

EXTRAPOLATING MITIGATION POTENTIAL TO ASEAN REGION

Maximum Mitigation Potential

1.5 MWe wood waste-fired

cogeneration plant

Replication in the

wood industry

mitigation potential:

22,400,944 tonnes CO2

equiv./year

mitigation potential:

15,731 tonnes CO2

equiv./year

slide22

EXTRAPOLATING MITIGATION POTENTIAL TO ASEAN REGION

Conservative Mitigation Potential

1.5 MWe wood waste-fired

cogeneration plant

Replication in the

wood industry

mitigation potential:

12,794,547 tonnes CO2

equiv./year

mitigation potential:

15,731 tonnes CO2

equiv./year

slide23

CASE STUDY OF A RICE HUSK-FIRED COGENERATION PLANT

Current scenario: 2.5 MWe rice husk-fired cogeneration

Old use of residues: Open-burning

Alternative scenario: Grid for power requirements +

fuel oil boiler for heat requirements

Quantity of residues used: 34,919 tonnes per year

Quantity replaced:

- Grid power 16,875,000 kWh/year

- Fuel oil 661 tonnes/year

slide25

EXTRAPOLATING MITIGATION POTENTIAL TO ASEAN REGION

Maximum Mitigation Potential

2.5 MWe rice husk-fired

cogeneration plant

Replication in the

rice industry

mitigation potential:

14,298,210 tonnes CO2

equiv./year

mitigation potential:

16,382 tonnes CO2

equiv./year

slide26

EXTRAPOLATING MITIGATION POTENTIAL TO ASEAN REGION

Conservative Mitigation Potential

2.5 MWe rice husk-fired

cogeneration plant

Replication in the

rice industry

mitigation potential:

1,461,274 tonnes CO2

equiv./year

mitigation potential:

16,382 tonnes CO2

equiv./year

slide31

CONCLUSION

After having been demonstrated that clean and efficient biomass cogeneration projects are technically reliable and economically viable, ASEAN governments are now setting up the right institutional framework to encourage the implementation of such projects. Let us hope that this will help tap this huge renewable energy potential.