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POTENTIAL FOR ENERGY FROM BIOMASS IN THE UK. Alex McBurnie ENV-2E02 Energy Resources. February 24 th 2005. LOOKING AT: Electricity Heat Transport 15-25 years in the future. BUT NOT: Energy from Waste Which would include : Straw Hedge Clippings Sawmill Waste

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Potential for energy from biomass in the uk

POTENTIAL FOR ENERGY FROM BIOMASS IN THE UK

Alex McBurnie

ENV-2E02

Energy Resources

February 24th 2005


Including ignoring

LOOKING AT:

Electricity

Heat

Transport

15-25 years in the future

BUT NOT:

Energy from Waste

Which would include:

Straw

Hedge Clippings

Sawmill Waste

Which could provide much energy by themselves

INCLUDING / IGNORING


Energy from existing forests
ENERGY FROM EXISTING FORESTS

  • 12% of Britain is woodland – 2.8 million hectares (Forestry Commission, 2004)

  • By 2020 Britain will be producing 10 million tonnes a year more wood than is currently used – and demand is falling (RCEP, 2004)

  • This level is sustainable assuming restocking matches or exceeds extraction


How much energy could this produce
HOW MUCH ENERGY COULD THIS PRODUCE?

  • 10 million tonnes of wood

  • Energy Content Estimated 20 GJ / Tonne

  • Will therefore contain (not accounting for energy used in extraction):

  • 200 million GJ

  • 200 PJper Year


New planting

Wood

Short Rotation Coppice -4 year cycle

-20 year replacement

Longer growth - 15 years

Willow or Poplar Trees

For heat, electricity and CHP production

Non-wood

Miscanthus Grass

Oilseed rape for biodiesel

Sugar beet for bioethanol

1 season cylce

All have similar energy contents ~ 20GJ / tonne

NEW PLANTING


Using set aside land
USING SET-ASIDE LAND

  • Under CAP an average (1999-2002) 640 ha land is under set-aside

  • Much of this lies fallow

  • At yields of 15 tonnes / hectare / year (conservative estimate) x 640 ha = 9600 tonnes per year

  • So 10,000 tonnes per year realistic estimate


Set aside land continued
SET-ASIDE LAND CONTINUED…

  • 10,000 tonnes x 20 GJ = 200,000 GJ

  • 200,000 GJ =

  • 0.2 PJ per Year


Using exiting agricultural land
USING EXITING AGRICULTURAL LAND

  • Grade 5 land largely too poor

  • Grades 1, 2 & 3 best used for food production

  • Grade 4 ideal for fuel crops


Existing land continued
EXISTING LAND CONTINUED…

  • Grades 4 = 16% of UK agricultural land

  • NFU indicates 20% of UK crops are not needed for food

  • Suggests that use of grade 4 land will have no effect on food supply


How much
HOW MUCH?

  • 16% of UK’s 18.5 million hectares agricultural land = 3 million hectares (roughly)

  • At yields of 15 tonnes / hectare / year = 45 million tonnes

  • Assuming 20 GJ per tonne this could produce 900 million GJ = 900 PJ per year


Summary of raw energy
SUMMARY OF RAW ENERGY

  • From exiting forests = 200 PJ

  • From set-aside land = 0.2 PJ

  • From agricultural land = 900 PJ

  • Minus extraction and transport overheads of 0.2 GJ / tonne (from Thetford Forest practical) x 55,010,000 t = >12PJ

  • Total = 1088.2 PJ per year


How will this be used

EFFICIENCIES

CHP (or heat only) = 85%

Straight electricity = 30%

Road transport = 70%

SO THE TOTAL USEABLE ENERGY PRODUCED COULD BE ANYWHERE BETWEEN 325 PJ and 925 PJ

HOW WILL THIS BE USED?