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Pauline Interpretation of Christianity: ROMANS. February 8, 2011. Today’s Schedule. 4:00-5:15 Paul’s Doctrine of Justification : Pros and Cons of a Forensic/Theological Reading of Paul. Part C of Form! 5:15-6:00 Romans 2:1-3:31

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today s schedule
Today’s Schedule
  • 4:00-5:15 Paul’s Doctrine of Justification: Pros and Cons of a Forensic/Theological Reading of Paul. Part C of Form!
  • 5:15-6:00 Romans 2:1-3:31
  • ROUNDTABLE A: “law” and “sin” STEVE STAGGS (vs Jewett)
  •  ROUNDTABLE B: “sin” and “atonement” JASON JONES (vs BYRNE ) and MADELEINE ST MARIE (vs. JEWETT )
  • 6:00-6:30 Discussing your Interpretations
next week
Next Week
  • Please sign up
  • Also look at Webhttp://www.vanderbilt.edu/AnS/religious_studies/212-S10/212.htm
i am not ashamed of the gospel 1 16 theological forensic reading
I am not ashamed of the Gospel (1:16)Theological Forensic Reading
  • = an emphatic “I confess the gospel” “I affirm the truth of the gospel” (“I am mighty proud of the gospel”): Michel, Barrett, Stuhlmacher (28) and others
  • = a negative formulation of “I confess” (like Mark 8:38; “Those who are ashamed of me and of my words. . . of them the Son of Man will also be ashamed when he comes in the glory of his Father with the holy angels").
  • What Paul “confesses” the truth of the content of the Gospel revealed to him when he was set apart for it (1:1-4), he is not ashamed of preaching it.
      • (Part of the defense of the truth of the gospel, that Romans is. “His gospel and his person are ‘slandered’ all the way to Rome (cf. 3:8): “Paul will not give in to this criticism” (PS, 28))
i am not ashamed of the gospel 1 16 pastoral reading
I am not ashamed of the Gospel 1:16Pastoral Reading
  • “For Paul, the shameful issue of the letter is the gospel itself, which proclaimed Christ crucified and resurrected. Although the word cross is absent in Romans and the verb “crucified” appears only once (Rom 6:6), it is clear from 1 Cor 2:2 that Paul assumed the gospel was the message about “Jesus Christ and him crucified.” . . . , the gospel that Paul hopes to proclaim in Rome and thereafter in Spain was innately shameful as far as Mediterranean cultures were concerned.
  • The message about a redeemer being crucified was a "stumbling block to Jews and foolishness to Gentiles" (1 Cor 1:23). . . There were deeply engrained social reasons why Paul should have been ashamed to proclaim such a gospel;
  • his claim not to be ashamed signals that a social and ideological revolution has been inaugurated by the gospel.”
      • [Jewett, Romans. Hermeneia Commentary (forthcoming), on Rom 1:16; DP’s emphasis] [New Perspective/Pastoral Reading]
i am not ashamed of the gospel 1 16 apocalyptic messianic reading
I am not ashamed of the Gospel 1:16Apocalyptic/Messianic Reading
  • = an emphatic “I confess the gospel” “I testify to the manifestation of the gospel”;
  • I confess the gospel as power of God; precisely because it manifests the power of God, I do not fear to confess it; it does not shame me; I am mighty proud of it. (Byrne, 51).
  • This is related to Käsemann’s interpretation which insists that this phrase means that Paul confesses, testifies to “God’s declaration of salvation to the world, which is outside human control, independent even of the church and its ministers, and which constantly becomes a reality itself in proclamation of the power of the Spirit”… Paul is not ashamed of the gospel, because “it is the power of God” (Käsemann, 21-22
romans 1 16 18 nrsv
Romans 1:16-18 NRSV +
  • 16 For I am not ashamed of the gospel; it is the power of God for salvation to everyone who has faith [NAB, NIV who believes], to the Jew first and also to the Greek. 17 For in it the righteousness of God [NJB the saving justice of God = performed by God] is revealed throughfaith for faith [[NAB, BBE, YLT, from faith to faith; NJB a justice based on faith and addressed to faith NIV that is by faith from first to last; as it is written] "The one who is righteous will live by faith." [[NJB Anyone who is upright through faith will live.]]
romans 1 16 18 nrsv8
Romans 1:16-18 NRSV +
  • the righteousness of God as
    • a quality of God = the righteousness that God has
    • the righteousness given by God to believers = the forgiveness given by God which absolves the guilty from condemnation
    • the saving justice of God = performed by God
  • "The one who is righteous
    • will live by faith.
    • is upright (righteous) through faith (will live.)
romans 3 21 26 nrsv
Romans 3:21-26 NRSV +
  • 21 But now, apart from law, the righteousness of God [quality of God? Given by God? Justice performed by God?]has been disclosed [manifested, revealed],and is attested [[testified to as a witness; or L & P “bear witness to”] by the law and the prophets, 22the righteousness of God [see above] [NIV come] through faith in Jesus Christ for all who believe. [[(come) through the faith{fulness }of Jesus Christ for all who have faith]]For there is no distinction, 23 since all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God; 24 they are now justified by his grace as a gift, through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus, 25 whom God put forward as a sacrifice of atonement by his blood, effective through faith. He did this to show his righteousness, because in his divine forbearance he had passed over the sins previously committed; 26 it was to prove at the present time that he himself is righteous and that he justifies the one who has faith in Jesus.
romans 3 21 26 nrsv10
Romans 3:21-26 NRSV +
  • For there is no distinction, 23 since all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God; 24 they are now justified [made righteous = forensic imputed righteousness; or made just = people performing justice, no longer under the bondage of sin] by his grace as a gift [1) this imputed righteousness as a gracious gift, with grace = forgiveness; 2) “grace” = a gracious gift, with grace = the power of the Gospel & God transforming sinners & their situations], through the redemption[ = 1) forgiveness or 2) freedom from bondage] that is in Christ Jesus, 25 whom God put forward as a sacrifice of atonement by his blood, effective through faith. He did this to show his righteousness, because in his divine forbearance he had passed over the sins previously committed; 26 it was to prove at the present time that he himself is righteous and that he justifies the one who has faith in Jesus.
romans 3 21 26 nrsv11
Romans 3:21-26 NRSV +
  • through the redemption[ = 1) forgiveness or 2) freedom from bondage] that is in Christ Jesus, 25whom God put forward as a sacrifice of atonement by his blood, effective through faith.[[BBE Forensic : Whom God has put forward as the sign of his mercy, through faith, by his blood, NAB, RSV whom God set forth as an expiation, through faith, by his blood, NJB: Pastoral/covenantal: God appointed him as a sacrifice for reconciliation, through faith, by the shedding of his blood,
propitiation vs expiation vs redemption
Propitiation vs. Expiation vs. Redemption
  • Propitiation = something that ameliorates God’s wrath, dissolves hostility = vicarious death of Christ = punished instead of the sinners Vicarious/Scapegoat sacrifice
  • Expiation = expunges, takes away the sin = takes away what separates sinners from God (the sinners’ anger against God) = what re-establish a right relationship with God through our being reconciled to God. Covenantal sacrifice (reestablishing proper covenantal relation with God)
  • Redemption = Deliverance, being set free (from the power of sin; from the powers of idols, addictions, etc.); Passover Sacrifice resulting in and celebrating deliverance from bondage
justification righteousness for peter stuhlmacher forensic
Justification/righteousness For Peter Stuhlmacher (Forensic)
  • 1) According to Peter Stuhlmacher, Paul’s view of justification is “forensic” (as he says on p. 20 and 30)? This means that “justification” or “being justified” is primarilyunderstood as
  • being forgiven as an individual sinner by God through Christ[[Stuhlmacher constantly refers to individual sinners]]
  • & NOT primarily being chosen for a certain vocation/task as a member of God’s people through Christ
  • & NOT primarily being transformed/powerfully affected by God’s power through Christ
luther s interpretation on 1 16 17 peter stuhlmacher 34 35 luther works 34 337
Luther’s interpretation on 1:16-17(Peter Stuhlmacher, 34-35; Luther, Works, 34:337)
  • “The righteousness of God is that by which the righteous lives by a gift of God, namely faith”
  • “The righteousness of God is revealed by the gospel, namely, the passive righteousness with which merciful God justifies us by faith”
      • No “works-righteousness”
      • Not the “righteousness of God” as “justice of God” (of a wrathful God)
  • “The word of God, that is, what God does in us, the power of God, with which he makes us strong, the wisdom of God, with which he makes us wise, the strength of God, the salvation of God”
for peter stuhlmacher justification is forensic
For Peter Stuhlmacher justification is “forensic”
  • Does this mean that the two secondary understandings are ignored by Peter Stuhlmacher?
  • Of course not. As a good scholar he pays close attention to everything which is in the text.
for peter stuhlmacher forensic justification is more than forgiveness
For Peter Stuhlmacher Forensic Justification is More than forgiveness

1. Being justified = being forgiven by God,

    • “but not exhausted by the message of forgiveness for individuals” (30)

2. being justified FOR a certain vocation: (understood in forensic way as faithful response)

  • Passing on the saving message to all peoples (30)

3. being subjected to God’s power manifested in Christ, the messianic Lord

  • Christ as messianic Lord is a) guarantor of the justification (the gift of faith); b) the judge of the world; c) establishing God’s kingdom and reign
for the pastoral new perspective justification is covenantal
For the Pastoral/New Perspective Justification is “Covenantal”
  • “Justification” or “being justified” is

1. PRIMARILY: Having been chosen (= saved in the past = by Christ’s death) to be a member of the people of God (body of Christ) for a certain vocation for /with others

    • A privilege and a task

SECONDARILY

2. Having been transformed by God’s power, freed from bondage (in Egypt, or other bondages) and empowered to serve God

3. And being forgiven by God, when one repents

    • who otherwise would be right in withdrawing the election/vocation (we are not doing our job)
for apocalyptic messianic reading justification is being transformed
For Apocalyptic/Messianic ReadingJustification is being “transformed”
  • “Justification” or “being justified” is

1. Being saved (in present by resurrected Christ) = being transformed by God’s power, freed from evil powers and empowered to serve God

    • Rather than being in bondage to oppressive powers (see chs. 5-8)

2. being chosento be a member of the people of God for a certain vocation:

    • Rather than being unable to do it

3. being forgiven by God,

    • who otherwise would be right in condemning & destroying sinners who rebelled against God
for peter stuhlmacher judgment
For Peter Stuhlmacher Judgment
  • 3) According to Stuhlmacher, did Paul’s gospel message directly relate to the coming of the apocalyptic final judgment when the unrighteous will be condemned?YES (p. 14; 68-69)
  • For Paul “Justification involves an act of judgment” = the final judgment
    • Difficult to miss in Rom 1:18: “For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and wickedness of those who by their wickedness suppress the truth.”
for peter stuhlmacher judgment forensic view
For Peter Stuhlmacher Judgment: Forensic view
  • Judgment/Wrath of God is to be expected; but actually canceled by Jesus’ death (if we put ourselves to the benefit of his death)
    • Because individuals willingly reject God and God’s will
    • Thus they are responsible; found guilty, before God the judge.
  • Root-problem: Located in the individual; especially “individual will”
  • Beware, the Judgment is coming! = news necessary to change the will of people (threatens them; scares them; look at the consequences!)
judgment pastoral view
Judgment: Pastoral view
  • Judgment/Wrath of God is much needed: there is something wrong in this world!!
  • Against community divisions; Jews vs. Gentiles; Gentiles vs. Jews; but also
  • Against shunning people from the community and/or ostracizing them. Against not treating other as full and legitimate members of the community; marginalizing them; excluding them from the community;
  • Against genocide: the Holocaust/Shoah; Darfur; Rwanda;
  • Developed world/rich vs. the poor (gated communities)
  • Root-problem: In community; which the community can change
judgment messianic view
Judgment: Messianic View
  • Judgment/Wrath of God is much needed; there is something wrong in this world!!
  • 26,500 children die every day of poverty, hunger, easily preventable diseases (=A 2004 Asian Tsunami occurring every week)
  • Almost half the world—over three billion people—live on less than $2.50 a day. 95% of humanity lives on less than $10 a day
      • Shaohua Chen and Martin Ravallion, The developing world is poorer than we thought, but no less successful in the fight against poverty. World Bank, August 2008
  • Root-problem: Systemic Evil; a power which keep people in bondage; transcendent Evil power; ideology as idolatry with power upon both individuals and communities; neither individuals nor communities can overcome this evil (only possible solution is a transcendent , divine intervention )
for peter stuhlmacher
For Peter Stuhlmacher
  • Forensic: Justification by faith alone = in order to be saved (from the future judgment) one must have a certain kind of faith.
    • Faith as “believing that”: a certain belief about Christ = faith in Christ
    • (see S. Discussion of the salvation of Israel: saved only when they will have faith in Christ. 69-71)
  • Pastoral View: Justification by faith alone is justification by virtue of the grace of God alone; whether one knows it or not one is saved;
  • the good news is the proclamation of this reality; all are unconditionally included
    • Rejected by S. who does not want to say that whether one knows it or not one is saved
justification by faith alone means
Justification by faith alone means
  • Messianic/Apocalyptic: Justification by faith means immediate salvation for the believers because
  • faith means recognizing that God is presently at work bringing about salvation to those who are under bondage; freeing them.
for peter stuhlmacher25
For Peter Stuhlmacher
  • What is the view of salvation presupposed by Peter Stuhlmacher all along?
  • From what do people need to be saved? From the anger (wrath) of God
  • For what are people saved? or “sanctification” and serving God
for peter stuhlmacher paul s primary view of sin is
For Peter Stuhlmacher, Paul’s primary view of SIN is
  • Sin is rebelling against God, blurring of the difference between sin and God’s holiness (61) doing evil, what you feel guilty about
  • it is NOT Sin as failing to carryout out one’s vocation as the people of God (Pastoral/Covenantal view)
  • it is NOT Sin as a power which keeps people in bondage, darkening their mind, preventing them to have a true vision of God (Apocalyptic/Messianic view)
for peter stuhlmacher paul s primary view of atonement is
For Peter Stuhlmacher, Paul’s primary view of ATONEMENT is
  • Christ died in order to bring about:
  • The Satisfaction of a debt (before God as Judge); Vicarious death of Christ. (58-60)
  • Rather than a Moral Transformation of believers so that they might be just, and carry out their vocation. (Pastoral/Covenantal)
  • & Rather than Freedom from Bondage to evil powers (Redemption from bondage) (Apocalyptic/Messianic)
pat robertson haiti theodicy forensic view without good news
Pat Robertson, Haiti, Theodicy = Forensic View (without Good News):
  • His declaration a year ago about Haiti as example of Forensic interpretation
  • 1. Earthquake is “a blessing in disguise”
  • 2. Haitians deserve the suffering = punishment, because they “swore a pact to the devil. They said ‘we will serve you if you will get us free from the French’ ... so the Devil said ‘O.K., it’s a deal.’ and they kicked the French out. … ever since they have been cursed by one thing after the other.”
haiti and theodicy forensic view
Haiti and Theodicy: = Forensic View
  • Bishop Éric Toussaint, standing near his damaged cathedral, said a year ago: “Why give thanks to God? Because we are here. What happened is the will of God. We are in the hands of God now.”
  • Survivor: “God must have been watching out for me; it’s a miracle I survived” …
    • whereby those who died were presumably not being “watched out for by God.”
  • President Obama movingly invoked “our common humanity,” and said that “we stand in solidarity with our neighbors to the south, knowing that but for the grace of God, there we go.” (Thus the Haitians were not protected by God’s grace? Were cursed?)
the gospel as the power of god for salvation to everyone who has faith
The gospel as the power of God for salvation to everyone who has faith
  • For Luther and Stuhlmacher:
  • “Salvation” = salvation from God’s condemnation at the final judgment
  • You cannot earn it: you cannot be saved from final condemnation by good works:
    • works-righteousness = impossible. Thus, everyone is condemned
  • You can only be saved by “grace” = graciousness of God = forgiveness
  • That one must accept in “faith” = belief that Christ died instead of me (belief in truth of this statement)
were pharisees advocating works righteousness no
Were Pharisees advocating “works-righteousness”? No!
  • E.P. Sanders: No! against this forensic interpretation. Impossible for Paul, the Jew who follows Christ “Covenantal nomism” (1975)
    • Cf, Pam Eisenbaum, Paul Was Not a Christian: The Original Message of a Misunderstood Apostle (2009)
  • They may trust in God’s forgiveness when they repent, Yom Kippur, sacrifices.
  • James Dunn: “Ancient Judaism is not a religion of works-righteousness and boasting before God, but a religion of the prevenient grace of God” “It knows justification by faith and lives by it” (PS 39)
  • Paul’s new message as apostle: this justification by faith and grace is also for Gentiles
for stuhlmacher sanders dunn give a one sided view of judaism
For Stuhlmacher: Sanders-Dunn give a one-sided view of Judaism
  • Many texts in Ancient Judaism (especially Qumran, and Apocalyptic texts) speaks about the coming final judgment
  • About the works of righteousness following someone at the final judgment
  • In order to be saved, one needs to have works of righteousness
but stuhlmacher also gives a one sided view of judaism
BUT: Stuhlmacher also gives a one-sided view of Judaism
  • No distinction between Pharisaic Judaism (Paul the Pharisees), Sadducees, and the Qumran sect, and other Apocalyptic sects… Judaism is NOT monolithic
  • No clear research on Jewish “soteriology”
  • Ask a main-line (rabbinic, Pharisaic) faithful Jew: Do you need to be saved?
  • The answer: No. I am already saved.
stuhlmacher s reading of paul s eschatology soteriology 53
Stuhlmacher’s reading of Paul’s Eschatology & Soteriology (53)
  • Mission, vicarious death, resurrection & exaltation of Jesus Christ
    • New people of God is gathered by apostles
  • Second coming (parousia) of Christ in power
    • Transformation and participation of believers in kingdom
  • The End = the Final Judgment
    • Believers are justified and glorified
    • Judgment of the cosmos (all people) & fallen angels
    • The creation is redeemed the Kingdom is fully established
stuhlmacher on process of justification
Stuhlmacher on process of justification
  • Atonement and reconciliation should not be distinguished: justification = atonement
  • Believers share in Jesus’ atoning death (key text is Rom 3:24-26)
    • Vicarious understanding of Jesus’ death
  • Justification by faith alone = justification by virtue of the grace of God alone
    • Opens the saving way of faith and power of the Spirit
    • Salvation of Israel, when free from hardening & with faith
answering your question by reading rom 1 16 18
Answering your question, by reading Rom 1:16-18
  • Romans 1:16 For I am not ashamed (!) of the gospel; it is the power of God for salvation [from what? For what?] to/of everyone who has faith [?], to the Jew first and also to the Greek. 1:17 For in it the righteousness/justice of God is [present] revealed from faith to faith [NAB; evk pi,stewj eivj pi,stin NRSV through faith for faith; NIV, by faith from first to last]; as it is written, "The righteous [just] by faith will live.” 1:18 For the wrath of God is [present] revealed [?] from heaven against all ungodliness/impiety and wickedness/injustice of those who kateco,ntwn suppress/hold back/control/possess /the truth by/in [their] wickedness/injustice.
the righteousness justice of god
The righteousness/justice of God
  • Forensic. A) Characteristic of Godas a righteous just judge, who condemns the unrighteousor justifies; B) the righteous moral life and right relationship to God we should have; given to believers through faith
  • “of God” Objective genitive. Righteousness/Justice=holiness which characterizes God (Cranfield; Schlier)
  • Pastoral/New Perspective. A) just, holy, loving act of God (God’s justice is manifested in history of Israel and of Jesus through the covenant and new covenant that he freely offered) that humans should emulate in their lives with others (manifesting the just, holy, loving rule of God)
  • “Of God” Subjective genitive: the justice which God performs as subject(includes Dunn, 166; Jewett, etc. since Schlatter)
the righteousness justice of god38
The righteousness/justice of God
  • Forensic. A) Characteristic of Godas a righteous just judge, who condemns the unrighteousor justifies; “of God” Objective genitive.
  • Pastoral/New Perspective. A just, holy, loving act of God (God’s justice manifested in history of Israel and of Jesus through the covenant and new covenant that he freely offered) “Of God” Subjective genitive: the justice which God performs
  • Messianic/Apocalyptic: Justiceas the kind of right/justrelationship that God wants to and does establish among people; believers, including oppressed powerless people, can experience it now; they are empowered by the gospel and can see through faith manifestations of God’s justice and kingdom.
  • “Of God” Subjective genitive: the justice which God performs
slide39
Caravaggio, 1600

Title?

Paul’s Conversion on the Way to Damascus?

Paul’s Commissionon the Way to Damascus?

Paul’s transformative Experience of Mystery on the Way to Damascus?

An important choice?

Gager says YES, most important

jesus is messiah and the jews be damned
'Jesus is Messiah . . . and the Jews be damned'
  • "Is it possible to say 'Jesus is Messiah' without, implicitly or explicitly, saying at the same time, 'and the Jews be damned'?" Rosemary Radford RuetherFaith and Fratricide: The Theological Roots of Anti-Semitism. (1974; p. 246)
  • No it is not possible with a “traditional” = forensic reading of Paul
  • Affirming that Paul converted from Judaism, i.e., from work righteousness… then
john gager reinventing paul 5 9 apparent contradictions about israel and the law
John Gager Reinventing Paul(5-9)Apparent contradictions about Israel and the Law?
  • 3:20 no one will be declared righteous in his sight by observing the law; rather, through the law we become conscious of sin.
  • 3:1-2 Then what advantage has the Jew? Or what is
  • the value of circumcision? Much, in every way.
  • 9:31 but Israel, who did strive for the righteousness that is based on the law, did not succeed in fulfilling that law.
  • 3:31 Do we then overthrow the law by this faith?
  • By no means! On the contrary, we uphold the law.
  • 7:7 What then should we say?
  • That the law is sin? By no means!
  • 7:12 So the law is holy,
  • and the commandment is holy and just and good.
john gager reinventing paul 5 9 apparent contradictions about israel and the law45
John Gager Reinventing Paul(5-9)Apparent contradictions about Israel and the Law?

11:28 As regards the gospel they are enemies of God for your sake;

  • 11:1 I ask, then, has God rejected his people?
  • By no means! I
  • 11:26 all Israel will be saved;
  • 11:29 for the gifts and the calling of God
  • are irrevocable.
john gager reinventing paul 11 15 how to resolve these tensions
John Gager Reinventing Paul (11-15)How to resolve these tensions?
  • We are dealing with an enormous cultural artifact: adopted by Gnostics (Marcion) and the anti-Gnostic (catholic) church
  • If you miss Paul’s rhetorical strategies,
  • you will get it wrong
  • Recognize that preexisting interpretations are embedded in all translations, and dictionaries, even grammars
  • Always use several translations
  • (see 3:25)
john gager reinventing paul 11 15 how were these tensions resolved
John Gager Reinventing Paul 11-15How were these tensions resolved?
  • Suppressing the contradictions we perceive, by emphasizing one side (the anti-Israel side), and excluding the other (the pro-Israel side)
      • Sanders: Paul never argued that there is anything
      • wrong with Judaism (only superseded)
  • Paul’s Rejection-replacement of Judaism by the church (supersession)
  • Stendahl, Gaston, Stowers, Lodge:
  • NO supersession
john gager reinventing paul how were these tensions resolved
John Gager Reinventing PaulHow were these tensions resolved?
  • Beware of cultural myopia
  • Gager’s Solution: avoid reading Paul from an alien remote contextual perspective (i.e., later Christianity)
  • Interpret only from the perspective of Paul’s context (without pre-understandings)
  • Then = REAL PAUL
    • Sorry: this is a problematic denial by Gager of his own contextual perspective
  • But an Important Post-Holocaust Covenantal Reading of Paul
j gager reinventing paul 22 27 a rgument for paul s conversion from judaism
J.Gager Reinventing Paul (22-27) Argument for Paul’s conversion from Judaism?
  • Philippians 3:5-6; 8-9 (next # 1) = language of convert
  • But convert from what to what? From Judaism to Christianity? NO. Paul remained a Jew, now believing in Jesus as Messiah
    • Compare to some of you who converted from the denomination in which you were raised to another denomination – because of a religious experience
  • Galatians 1:13-16 (next # 2) a call to a special prophetic vocation for gentiles/nations
philippians 3 5 9
Philippians 3:5-9
  • NRSV 5 circumcised on the eighth day, a member of the people of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, a Hebrew born of Hebrews; as to the law, a Pharisee; 6 as to zeal, a persecutor of the church; as to righteousness under the law, blameless.
  • 7 Yet whatever gains I had, these I have come to regard as loss because of Christ. 8 More than that, I regard everything as loss because of the surpassing value of knowing Christ Jesus my Lord. For his sake I have suffered the loss of all things, and I regard them as rubbish, in order that I may gain Christ 9 and be found in him, not having a righteousness of my own that comes from the law, but one that comes through faith in Christ, the righteousness from God based on faith.
galatians 1 13 16 compare jer 1 5 isa 49 1
Galatians 1:13-16compare Jer 1:5 (Isa 49:1)
  • NRSV 13 You have heard, no doubt, of my earlier life in Judaism. I was violently persecuting the church of God and was trying to destroy it. 14 I advanced in Judaism beyond many among my people of the same age, for I was far more zealous for the traditions of my ancestors. 15 But when God, who had set me apart before I was born and called me through his grace, was pleased 16 to reveal his Son to me, so that I might proclaim him among the Gentiles/nations, I did not confer with any human being,
      • Jeremiah 1:5 "Before I formed you in the womb I knew you, and before you were born I consecrated you; I appointed you a prophet to the nations."
john gager reinventing paul paul the law 27 42 f t
John Gager Reinventing PaulPaul & the Law (27-42) F/T:
  • Forensic/Theological: Law =what Paul struggles against, then rejects
  • Jewish Law when one has zeal for it, full devotion to it
  • Law as a way to righteousness & salvation through legalistic works of the law:
    • justification through works of the law vs through faith
  • This Law brings death (Rom 7:10)
  • = Sadducees’s view of Law and covenant (may be); BUT not the Pharisees’ and Paul’s
gager reinventing paul new perspective new covenant pastoral reading nc p
Gager Reinventing Paul = New Perspective (New Covenant/Pastoral reading; NC/P)
  • Guilt & forgiveness is not the issue; no introspective consciousness before Augustine (Stendahl)
  • Gospel with the Law = for Jews; part of their covenant relationship
    • The way for Israel to carry its vocation as a chosen people called to bring about the glorification of God among Gentiles
  • Gospel without the Law = for Gentiles = including them in the new covenant
  • Law is problematic (distorted, against the covenant) when it excludes others (Gentiles)
beyond gager reinventing paul
Beyond Gager Reinventing Paul
  • Law for Apocalyptic/Messianic reading (A/M)
  • Law = Torah = a promise= holy, just, and good (as all of Scripture—especially prophets): all the stories of Torah are types/promises
  • A promise fulfilled in Jesus (who also fulfills the prophecies) and the church
  • Law becomes deadly when it is held to be a complete and final revelation (when it is not, since it is promises of new revelations) = making an absolute of what is not absolute = making an idol out of it
  • Law becomes a manifestation of the power of sin
law cdc theodore jennings
“Law” CDC Theodore Jennings
  • Law. OT, torah(instruction) refers to narrative instruction, social regulation, and directives concerning, e.g., temples, vestments, and liturgies.
  • In Judaism “Torah” = Pentateuch, = relatively little material that would be termed “legal” in the later Roman sense. Reducing Torah to its legal codes (decalogue) is a later Christian innovation.
  • In the NT, nomos (“law”) often = Torah.
    • Yet for many interpreters, Paul restricts nomos to mosaic legal codes that do not apply to Gentiles.
    • love of neighbor “fulfills” or completes the Law.
law cdc theodore jennings56
“Law” CDC Theodore Jennings
  • When Roman Empire became Christian, emphasis on the “positive law” of legislation or decree.
    • Codes of Justinian and Theodosius as the basis of church-sanctioned law; then OT Law and cosmic laws = “natural law” that grounds moral law.
  • The Reformation regarded law negatively, as that which the human cannot fulfill (because of sin). = indicates the need a) for salvation “apart from the Law” (through the gospel of grace) and b) for punishing criminal behavior (murder, theft) in a fallen world.
  • a “third use of the Law” (= “positive law”) governs Christian communities and commonwealths.
law cdc theodore jennings57
“Law” CDC Theodore Jennings
  • [Covenantal view] For Radical Reformation movements the Law is fulfilled interhuman justice by love of the neighbor (Paul) or fulfilled through and mercy (Gospels).
  • [Covenantal] Recent European discussion: justice (radical welcome of the other, Derrida, Levinas) is heterogeneous to law yet indissociable from it.
  • [Messianic/Apocalyptic] Messianic movements (in all traditions) maintain that law is both consummated and abrogated with the coming of the Messiah and emphasize the violence of the law in contrast to a justice, which, like love, cannot be coerced (Agamben) Then Law = promise fulfilled (thus abrogated) in the Messiah and in Messianic time
romans 2 1 3 31 sin and law
Romans 2:1—3:31, “sin” and “law”
  • STEVE STAGGS (vs JEWETT)
  • Jonathan Baynham
  • Murielle Wyman
  • Julianne Snape
  • Jeremy Snow
  • Iris Ankrom
  • Arden Henderson
romans 2 1 3 31 sin and atonement
Romans 2:1—3:31, “sin” and “atonement”
  • JASON JONES (vs BYRNE)
  • MADELEINE ST MARIE (vs Jewett)
  • Karney Carney
  • Julie Carli
  • Amy Lentz
  • Derek Axelson
  • Ross Stackhouse
greeks and barbarians forensic
Greeks* and Barbarians* Forensic
  • Use of these terms shows that Paul accepts this stereotypical division of the world in the Roman Empire
  • And use it here as an alternative to the description of his mission to Gentiles… all Gentiles. (see Minear, on “indebtedness*) We must serve every one including the “gentiles” who ever they might be … those viewed as not worthy (by the Jews)
greeks and barbarians pastoral
Greeks* and Barbarians* Pastoral
  • Paul accepts this stereotypical division of the world in the Roman Empire
  • Jewett is quoted: “a stereotypical formula in which "Greeks" are typically mentioned first and "Barbarians" second. In the bilingual context of Rome, "Greek" means "Greco-Roman" while "Barbarian" refers to alien tribes who cannot speak Greek or Latin and are uncultured, wild, crude, fierce, and, in a basic sense, uncivilized.…
  • Particularly relevant to Paul's letter that prepared the way for a mission to Spain is that the Spaniards were viewed as Barbarians par excellence because so large a proportion continued to resist Roman rule. ….[Paul] conveys the sweeping inclusivity of the gospel of Christ crucified for all”
  • Paul here challenges the Honor/shame system… a new sense of inclusive community, “honor” and “shame’ have changed
greeks and barbarians messianic apocalyptic
Greeks* and Barbarians* Messianic/Apocalyptic
  • Greeks* and Barbarians*
  • Use of these terms shows that Paul is challengingthe Roman ideology (see Neil Elliot)

(Jewett’s comments/evidence are relevant though he concludes something else) “Imperial The triumph of Rome over the Barbarians was celebrated in public art and monuments, in victory parades, in the gladiatorial games, and on coins that reveal that this antithesis was basic to the imperial worldview.Yves Albert Dauge shows that from the second century BCE to the fifth century CE, the Romans viewed Barbarians as inherently "inhuman, ferocious, arrogant, weak, warlike, discordant. . . unstable, etc.”