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  1. Ecology

  2. Warmup 3/28 Do not write #1 • 1. If there were 2 giraffes, TT & Tt, and giraffes with long necks were more suited to the environment, both giraffes would have an equal chance of surviving. Why? • 2. What are the 3 types of reproductive isolation? • 3. Different species mate at different times. This is an example of _________ isolation. • 4. The fossil record is evidence for evolution because: • 1. We can see that fossils _______ over time. • 2. Sometimes find common ________. • 3. Trace the ancestry of a particular group. • 5. Natural selection determines which traits are passed to the next generation because better adapted organisms produce more _______.

  3. Bell activity • What do you think “ecology” is? Explain in complete sentences. If you do not know take a guess. Write on your notes sheet.

  4. Ecology Eco: house, place we live in, environment logy: study ECOLOGY: the scientific study of the interactions between organisms and between organisms and their environment BIODIVERSITY: the sum total of different kinds of organisms and is affected by alterations of habitats.

  5. A. Levels of Organization • A. Ecology can be studied at a wide range of levels, from small to large scale. • 1. Species- a group of organisms so similar to one another that they can breed and produce fertile offspring

  6. 2. Populations- groups of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area.

  7. 3. Communities- different species that live together in a specific area. (ie: frogs, crickets & plants in a terrarium OR fish, turtle & seaweed in an aquarium.) a. All the LIVING parts of an environment.

  8. 4. Ecosystem- a collection of all the organisms that live in a particular place, together with their nonliving, or physical, environment a. Living + Nonliving parts of the environment

  9. A. Levels of Organization (cont.) • 4. Ecosystem- a collection of all the organisms that live in a particular place, together with their nonliving, or physical, environment a. Living + Nonliving parts of the environment • 5. Biome- a group of ecosystems that have the same climate and dominant communities

  10. Question 1 Population, Community, OR Ecosystem? Answer: Community

  11. Question 2 Population, Community, OR Ecosystem? Answer: Population

  12. Question 3 Population, Community, OR Ecosystem? Answer: Ecosystem

  13. B. Producers • 1. Sunlight is the main energy source for life on Earth. • Of all the sun’s energy that reaches the Earth’s surface, only a small amount –less than three percent- is used by living things. • 2. Autotrophs capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use that energy to produce food. • a. Because autotrophs make, or produce, their own food, they are also called producers. • Only plants, some algae, and certain bacteria can use the sun’s energy. • Producers contain chlorophyllin their cells.

  14. C. Consumers • 1. Organisms that rely on other organisms for their energy and food supply are called heterotrophs or consumers. • a. Herbivores - obtain energy by eating only plants. • b. Carnivores - obtain energy by eating only other animals. • c. Omnivores - obtain energy by eating both plants and animals. • d. Decomposers - obtain energy by eating dead plants and animals. Ex: bacteria and fungi (the most important decomposers)

  15. C. Consumers (cont.) • 2. A primary consumer eats only producers. • Ex: cows eat grass • 3. A vital part of an ecosystem is the stability of its producers and decomposers

  16. 5 paragraph essay You have entered a travelling machine, however, the flux capacitor was not working correctly. You have no idea where you are. Create a story that describes the ecosystem you find yourself in. • You must include and correctly use the following terms in your concrete detail sentences: • Ecosystem, population, community, producer, consumer • When you are using the terms producer and consumer you must include somewhere in the paragraph: omnivore, herbivore, decomposer, and carnivore.

  17. Organizer

  18. Warmup 3/29-3/30 please write • 1. Organisms that obtain energy by breaking down dead and decaying plants & animals are called _________ (herbivores/decomposers). • 2. ________ is the original source of almost all energy in most ecosystems. • 3. The sum total of living organisms in an ecosystem is called ________ (ecology/biodiversity). • 4. Fish, seaweed, and coral all living in an aquarium is an example of a _________ (population/community). • 5. ________ (ecology/biology) is the study of relationships among living organisms and their interactions with the physical environment.

  19. D. Feeding Relationships • 1. Energy flows through an ecosystem in one direction, from the sun or inorganic compounds to autotrophs (producers) and then to various heterotrophs (consumers).

  20. D. Feeding Relationships • 1. Energy flows through an ecosystem in one direction, from the sun to autotrophs (producers) and then to various heterotrophs (consumers). SUN  Producers  Consumers

  21. D. Feeding Relationships • 1. Energy flows through an ecosystem in one direction, from the sun to autotrophs (producers) and then to various heterotrophs (consumers). • a. Food Chains • i. The energy stored by producers can be passed through an ecosystem along a food chain, a series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten.

  22. Food Chain • Algae • Zooplankton • Shark Producer Primary Consumer Secondary Consumer

  23. Food Chain

  24. Food Web

  25. D. Feeding Relationships (cont.) • b. Food Web • i. it is called a food web when the feeding relationships among the various organisms in an ecosystem form a network of complex interactions. • ii. A food web is a model of the feeding relationships between many different consumers and producers • iii. A food web links all the food chains in an ecosystem together.

  26. Hoo Eats Who Owl: Sparrow, shrew, vole, bat, mouse, mole, beetle, grasshopper Sparrow: Beetle, grasshopper, grass Shrew: Mice, beetle, grasshopper Vole: Beetle, grasshopper, grass Bat: Beetle, grasshopper Mouse: Beetle, grasshopper, grass Mole: beetle, grasshopper Rabbit: grass Beetle: grass Grasshopper: grass

  27. E. Ecological Pyramids • 1. An ecological pyramid is a diagram that shows the relative amounts of energy or matter contained within each trophic level in a food chain or food web. • a. Energy Pyramid- only 10% of the energy stored in an organism can be passed on to the next trophic level of the pyramid: RULE OF 10% • i. As you go up the pyramid, the amount of energy goes down. • ii. Of the remaining energy, some is used for the organism’s life processes and the rest is eliminated as heat. • iii. At the top of the pyramid would be sharks (or some carnivore) at the bottom grass or algae (or some other producer).

  28. Ecological Pyramids

  29. Ecological Pyramids HEAT HEAT HEAT HEAT

  30. Create and label: • Food chain • Food web • Ecological pyramid

  31. Feeding relationships • Grasshopper eats grass • Mouse eats grass • Grasshopper eats flower • Butterfly eats flower • Frog eats grasshopper • Frog eats butterfly • Dragonfly eats butterfly • Snake eats frog • Snake eats mouse • Hawk eats snake • Hawk eats mouse

  32. Activity • 10% passed on • Life processes cost 10% • About 80% lost as heat

  33. G. Recycling in the Biosphere • Unlike the one-way flow of energy, matter is recycled within and between ecosystems. • The Water Cycle- All livings things require water to survive. Water cycles between the ocean, atmosphere, and land.

  34. 1. The Water (Hydrologic) Cycle

  35. G. Recycling in the Biosphere (cont.) • i. Evaporation- the process by which water turns to vapor which goes into the atmosphere. • ii. Transpiration- the process where plants release water vapor into the atmosphere. • iii. Respiration- the process by which a living thing exchanges gases with the environment atmosphere. • iv. Precipitation- rain falls down to Earth.

  36. G. Recycling in the Biosphere (cont.)

  37. Carbon Cycle

  38. G. Recycling in the Biosphere (cont.) • c. The Carbon Cycle

  39. G. Recycling in the Biosphere (cont.) • The Carbon Cycle • I. There are four different processes involved in the carbon cycle. • 1. Biological processes, such as photosynthesis, respiration, and decomposition of plants and animals. • a. Green plants and algae remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from air • b. Producers generate O2 (oxygen) and utilize CO2 (carbon dioxide)

  40. G. Recycling in the Biosphere (cont.) • 2. Geochemical processes, such as the release of carbon dioxide gas to the atmosphere by volcanoes. • 3. Mixed biogeochemical processes, such as the burial of carbon-rich remains of organisms and their conversion into fossil fuels. • 4. Complete burning of plant material returns carbon primarily to the atmosphere.

  41. G. Recycling in the Biosphere (cont.) • d. The Nitrogen Cycle- the process of cycling nitrogen through the biosphere • i. All organisms require nitrogen to make amino acids, which in turn are used to build proteins • ii. Nitrogen fixation-the process when bacteria break down nitrogen into ammonia • iii. Denitrification- the process of converting nitrates into nitrogen gas, which are then released into the atmosphere • 1. Plants used nitrogen in the form of nitrates • iv. All animals must get nitrogen from plants.

  42. G. Recycling in the Biosphere (cont.) Nitrogen gas (N2) Ammonia (NH3) Nitrates (NO3)

  43. 1. Evaporation • 2. Decomposers • 3. decreases • 4. Lost as heat • 5. Burn fossil fuels, burning trees • 6. Eating plants • 7. Nitrates

  44. G. Recycling in the Biosphere (cont.) Nitrogen gas (N2) Nitrates (NO3)

  45. Exit • 1.Which 2 processes return carbon dioxide back to the atmosphere? (respiration/condensation/ decomposition/ precipitation/combustion) • 2. What type of organism would be found at the top of an energy pyramid? • 3. Consumers release _______ (oxygen/carbon dioxide) which is required by (decomposers/producers). • 4. What percent of energy is available from one 1 trophic level to the next? ______% • 5. A diagram of all the food chains in an ecosystem is called a _________ _______. • 6. The organisms at the beginning of a food chain are called _______.

  46. Warmup • Eco warmup 1/Graphic organizer

  47. Pair share • What does the prefix bio- mean?

  48. H. Biotic and Abiotic Factors Biotic factors- biological (living) factors in an ecosystem. • i. Ex: pine tree • Rabbits • Frogs

  49. H. Biotic and Abiotic Factors • ii. A changing biotic factor would be something living that changes ex: seasonal migration of birds