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Ecology. Warmup 3/28 Do not write #1. 1. If there were 2 giraffes, TT & Tt, and giraffes with long necks were more suited to the environment, both giraffes would have an equal chance of surviving. Why ? 2. What are the 3 types of reproductive isolation?

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warmup 3 28 do not write 1
Warmup 3/28 Do not write #1
  • 1. If there were 2 giraffes, TT & Tt, and giraffes with long necks were more suited to the environment, both giraffes would have an equal chance of surviving. Why?
  • 2. What are the 3 types of reproductive isolation?
  • 3. Different species mate at different times. This is an example of _________ isolation.
  • 4. The fossil record is evidence for evolution because:
    • 1. We can see that fossils _______ over time.
    • 2. Sometimes find common ________.
    • 3. Trace the ancestry of a particular group.
  • 5. Natural selection determines which traits are passed to the next generation because better adapted organisms produce more _______.
bell activity
Bell activity
  • What do you think “ecology” is? Explain in complete sentences. If you do not know take a guess. Write on your notes sheet.
slide4
Ecology

Eco: house, place we live in, environment

logy: study

ECOLOGY: the scientific study of the interactions between organisms and between organisms and their environment

BIODIVERSITY: the sum total of different kinds of organisms and is affected by alterations of habitats.

a levels of organization
A. Levels of Organization
  • A. Ecology can be studied at a wide range of levels, from small to large scale.
  • 1. Species- a group of organisms so similar to one another that they can breed and produce fertile offspring
slide6
2. Populations- groups of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area.
slide7

3. Communities- different species that live together in a specific area.

(ie: frogs, crickets & plants in a terrarium OR fish, turtle & seaweed in an aquarium.)

a. All the LIVING parts of an environment.

slide8
4. Ecosystem- a collection of all the organisms that live in a particular place, together with their nonliving, or physical, environment

a. Living + Nonliving parts of the environment

a levels of organization cont
A. Levels of Organization (cont.)
  • 4. Ecosystem- a collection of all the organisms that live in a particular place, together with their nonliving, or physical, environment

a. Living + Nonliving parts of the environment

  • 5. Biome- a group of ecosystems that have the same climate and dominant communities
question 1
Question 1

Population,

Community,

OR

Ecosystem?

Answer: Community

question 2
Question 2

Population,

Community,

OR

Ecosystem?

Answer: Population

question 3
Question 3

Population,

Community,

OR

Ecosystem?

Answer: Ecosystem

b producers
B. Producers
  • 1. Sunlight is the main energy source for life on Earth.
    • Of all the sun’s energy that reaches the Earth’s surface, only a small amount –less than three percent- is used by living things.
  • 2. Autotrophs capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use that energy to produce food.
    • a. Because autotrophs make, or produce, their own food, they are also called producers.
      • Only plants, some algae, and certain bacteria can use the sun’s energy.
      • Producers contain chlorophyllin their cells.
c consumers
C. Consumers
  • 1. Organisms that rely on other organisms for their energy and food supply are called heterotrophs or consumers.
  • a. Herbivores - obtain energy by eating only plants.
  • b. Carnivores - obtain energy by eating only other animals.
  • c. Omnivores - obtain energy by eating both plants and animals.
  • d. Decomposers - obtain energy by eating dead plants and animals. Ex: bacteria and fungi (the most important decomposers)
c consumers cont
C. Consumers (cont.)
  • 2. A primary consumer eats only producers.
    • Ex: cows eat grass
  • 3. A vital part of an ecosystem is the stability of its producers and decomposers
5 paragraph essay
5 paragraph essay

You have entered a travelling machine, however, the flux capacitor was not working correctly. You have no idea where you are. Create a story that describes the ecosystem you find yourself in.

  • You must include and correctly use the following terms in your concrete detail sentences:
    • Ecosystem, population, community, producer, consumer
    • When you are using the terms producer and consumer you must include somewhere in the paragraph: omnivore, herbivore, decomposer, and carnivore.
warmup 3 29 3 30 please write
Warmup 3/29-3/30 please write
  • 1. Organisms that obtain energy by breaking down dead and decaying plants & animals are called _________ (herbivores/decomposers).
  • 2. ________ is the original source of almost all energy in most ecosystems.
  • 3. The sum total of living organisms in an ecosystem is called ________ (ecology/biodiversity).
  • 4. Fish, seaweed, and coral all living in an aquarium is an example of a _________ (population/community).
  • 5. ________ (ecology/biology) is the study of relationships among living organisms and their interactions with the physical environment.
d feeding relationships
D. Feeding Relationships
  • 1. Energy flows through an ecosystem in one direction, from the sun or inorganic compounds to autotrophs (producers) and then to various heterotrophs (consumers).
d feeding relationships1
D. Feeding Relationships
  • 1. Energy flows through an ecosystem in one direction, from the sun to autotrophs (producers) and then to various heterotrophs (consumers).

SUN 

Producers 

Consumers

d feeding relationships2
D. Feeding Relationships
  • 1. Energy flows through an ecosystem in one direction, from the sun to autotrophs (producers) and then to various heterotrophs (consumers).
    • a. Food Chains
      • i. The energy stored by producers can be passed through an ecosystem along a food chain, a series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten.
food chain
Food Chain
  • Algae
  • Zooplankton
  • Shark

Producer

Primary

Consumer

Secondary

Consumer

d feeding relationships cont
D. Feeding Relationships (cont.)
  • b. Food Web
    • i. it is called a food web when the feeding relationships among the various organisms in an ecosystem form a network of complex interactions.
    • ii. A food web is a model of the feeding relationships between many different consumers and producers
    • iii. A food web links all the food chains in an ecosystem together.
slide27
Hoo Eats Who

Owl: Sparrow, shrew, vole, bat, mouse, mole, beetle, grasshopper

Sparrow: Beetle, grasshopper, grass

Shrew: Mice, beetle, grasshopper

Vole: Beetle, grasshopper, grass

Bat: Beetle, grasshopper

Mouse: Beetle, grasshopper, grass

Mole: beetle, grasshopper

Rabbit: grass

Beetle: grass

Grasshopper: grass

e ecological pyramids
E. Ecological Pyramids
  • 1. An ecological pyramid is a diagram that shows the relative amounts of energy or matter contained within each trophic level in a food chain or food web.
    • a. Energy Pyramid- only 10% of the energy stored in an organism can be passed on to the next trophic level of the pyramid: RULE OF 10%
      • i. As you go up the pyramid, the amount of energy goes down.
      • ii. Of the remaining energy, some is used for the organism’s life processes and the rest is eliminated as heat.
      • iii. At the top of the pyramid would be sharks (or some carnivore) at the bottom grass or algae (or some other producer).
ecological pyramids1
Ecological Pyramids

HEAT

HEAT

HEAT

HEAT

create and label
Create and label:
  • Food chain
  • Food web
  • Ecological pyramid
feeding relationships
Feeding relationships
  • Grasshopper eats grass
  • Mouse eats grass
  • Grasshopper eats flower
  • Butterfly eats flower
  • Frog eats grasshopper
  • Frog eats butterfly
  • Dragonfly eats butterfly
  • Snake eats frog
  • Snake eats mouse
  • Hawk eats snake
  • Hawk eats mouse
activity
Activity
  • 10% passed on
  • Life processes cost 10%
  • About 80% lost as heat
g recycling in the biosphere
G. Recycling in the Biosphere
  • Unlike the one-way flow of energy, matter is recycled within and between ecosystems.
  • The Water Cycle- All livings things require water to survive. Water cycles between the ocean, atmosphere, and land.
g recycling in the biosphere cont
G. Recycling in the Biosphere (cont.)
  • i. Evaporation- the process by which water turns to vapor which goes into the atmosphere.
  • ii. Transpiration- the process where plants release water vapor into the atmosphere.
  • iii. Respiration- the process by which a living thing exchanges gases with the environment atmosphere.
  • iv. Precipitation- rain falls down to Earth.
g recycling in the biosphere cont3
G. Recycling in the Biosphere (cont.)
  • The Carbon Cycle
    • I. There are four different processes involved in the carbon cycle.
      • 1. Biological processes, such as photosynthesis, respiration, and decomposition of plants and animals.
        • a. Green plants and algae remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from air
        • b. Producers generate O2 (oxygen) and utilize CO2 (carbon dioxide)
g recycling in the biosphere cont4
G. Recycling in the Biosphere (cont.)
  • 2. Geochemical processes, such as the release of carbon dioxide gas to the atmosphere by volcanoes.
  • 3. Mixed biogeochemical processes, such as the burial of carbon-rich remains of organisms and their conversion into fossil fuels.
  • 4. Complete burning of plant material returns carbon primarily to the atmosphere.
g recycling in the biosphere cont5
G. Recycling in the Biosphere (cont.)
  • d. The Nitrogen Cycle- the process of cycling nitrogen through the biosphere
    • i. All organisms require nitrogen to make amino acids, which in turn are used to build proteins
    • ii. Nitrogen fixation-the process when bacteria break down nitrogen into ammonia
    • iii. Denitrification- the process of converting nitrates into nitrogen gas, which are then released into the atmosphere
      • 1. Plants used nitrogen in the form of nitrates
    • iv. All animals must get nitrogen from plants.
g recycling in the biosphere cont6
G. Recycling in the Biosphere (cont.)

Nitrogen gas (N2)

Ammonia (NH3)

Nitrates (NO3)

slide44
1. Evaporation
  • 2. Decomposers
  • 3. decreases
  • 4. Lost as heat
  • 5. Burn fossil fuels, burning trees
  • 6. Eating plants
  • 7. Nitrates
g recycling in the biosphere cont7
G. Recycling in the Biosphere (cont.)

Nitrogen gas (N2)

Nitrates (NO3)

slide46
Exit
  • 1.Which 2 processes return carbon dioxide back to the atmosphere? (respiration/condensation/ decomposition/ precipitation/combustion)
  • 2. What type of organism would be found at the top of an energy pyramid?
  • 3. Consumers release _______ (oxygen/carbon dioxide) which is required by (decomposers/producers).
  • 4. What percent of energy is available from one 1 trophic level to the next? ______%
  • 5. A diagram of all the food chains in an ecosystem is called a _________ _______.
  • 6. The organisms at the beginning of a food chain are called _______.
warmup
Warmup
  • Eco warmup 1/Graphic organizer
pair share
Pair share
  • What does the prefix bio- mean?
h biotic and abiotic factors
H. Biotic and Abiotic Factors

Biotic factors- biological (living) factors in an ecosystem.

  • i. Ex: pine tree
  • Rabbits
  • Frogs
h biotic and abiotic factors1
H. Biotic and Abiotic Factors
  • ii. A changing biotic factor would be something living that changes ex: seasonal migration of birds
h biotic and abiotic factors2
H. Biotic and Abiotic Factors

Abiotic factors- physical (non-living) factors in an ecosystem.

  • i. Ex: sunlight
  • Rocks
slide52
v. A changing abiotic factor would be a mountain pond changing into a meadow over hundreds of years.
h biotic and abiotic factors cont
H. Biotic and Abiotic Factors (cont.)
  • Together, biotic and abiotic factors determine the survival and growth of an organism and the productivity of the ecosystem in which the organism lives.
  • Habitat- the area where an organism lives
  • Niche- the full range of physical and biological conditions in which an organism lives and the way in which the organism uses those conditions.
i community interactions
I. Community Interactions
  • a. Competition- occurs when the organisms of the same or different species attempt to use the same ecological resources in the same place at the same time.
  • In a community organisms compete for resources
  • b. Predation- an interaction in which one organism captures and feeds on another organism
  • Predation-one organism captures and feeds on another organism
    • i. If there are few effective predators, a population will increase in size (ex: rabbits with no predators will overtake native species of plant eaters in the area.)
    • ii. If a nonnative predator is introduced to an area, the local population will almost go extinct because the local population becomes an immediate source of prey.
population size
Population Size
  • What will cause an increase in population size?
  • Birth rate increase
  • Death rate decrease
  • Immigration
slide56
Decrease in Population
    • Birth rate decreases
    • Death rate increases
    • Emigration (EXIT AREA)
  • Increase in Population
    • Birth rate increase
    • Death rate decrease
    • Immigration (IN AREA)
population size1
Population Size
  • What will cause the population size to decrease?
  • Birth rate decrease
  • Death rate increase
  • Emigration
j fluctuations in population size
J. Fluctuations in Population Size
  • a. Death rate- total deaths in a population
  • b. Immigration- departure from a native area to settle in another area (you are in the new) (IN)
  • c. Birth Rate- total live births in a population
  • d. Emigration- departure from one’s native land to settle in another (you have left) (EXIT)
  • e. Re-population- to introduce species back into an area they have already lived in (New Orleans will repopulate their city)
  • f. Nonnative species- a species that is not originally from an area (ie kangaroos would be a nonnative species in the U.S.)
slide59

Ecological Successionimagine a volcano wipes out a mountain…what grows back first?_____________________________________________________________

ecological succession
Ecological Succession
  • Imagine a volcano wipes out a mountain…what grows back first?__________________________
slide61

Ecological Succession

More Trees and Vegetation!

Trees

Shrubs

Lichens/

mosses

Grasses

slide63

Carrying capacity- Populations are limited by space, food. That limit is called the carrying capacity. Carrying capacity: the ability of an ecosystem to maintain a stable population

pair share1
Pair share
  • How have humans affected the environment?
pair share2
Pair share
  • How have humans affected the environment?
  • Buildings
  • Factories, Cars, Smoking – pollution
  • Wasting resources
slide67
Humans effect on the ecosystem

1. Human activity, including mining, the burning of fossil fuels, and the cutting and burning of forests (deforestation)

2. Humans have a huge effect on the ecosystem

  • a. Humans use many resources
  • b. The building of buildings and cities results in a habitat loss which endangers biodiversity and an alteration of habitat for the native species in the area
  • c. Pollution (burning of fossil fuels etc) endangers biodiversity
slide68
Exit

1. If a population is increasing the _______ (birth/death) rate is higher than the _________ (birth/death) rate.

2. A decreases in Population is probably due to an increase in ______ (death/birth) rate and/or ______ (immigration/emigration).

3. Snakes accidently transported to Hawaii became a pest when they almost caused native bird species to go extinct because the snakes _______________________________.

4. A graph of the carry capacity of an ecosystem shows us the ecosystem’s ability to __________________________________________.

5. A meadow is transformed into a lake over time allowing new communities to replace old communities, because the ________ (abiotic/biotic) characteristics of the environment changed.

6. After an area is destroyed is the likely order of repopulation is ____________  ___________ __________  _____

(mosses&lichens/ trees/shrubs/grasses)