Warmup 3/28 Do not write #1 • 1. If there were 2 giraffes, TT & Tt, and giraffes with long necks were more suited to the environment, both giraffes would have an equal chance of surviving. Why? • 2. What are the 3 types of reproductive isolation? • 3. Different species mate at different times. This is an example of _________ isolation. • 4. The fossil record is evidence for evolution because: • 1. We can see that fossils _______ over time. • 2. Sometimes find common ________. • 3. Trace the ancestry of a particular group. • 5. Natural selection determines which traits are passed to the next generation because better adapted organisms produce more _______.
Bell activity • What do you think “ecology” is? Explain in complete sentences. If you do not know take a guess. Write on your notes sheet.
Ecology Eco: house, place we live in, environment logy: study ECOLOGY: the scientific study of the interactions between organisms and between organisms and their environment BIODIVERSITY: the sum total of different kinds of organisms and is affected by alterations of habitats.
A. Levels of Organization • A. Ecology can be studied at a wide range of levels, from small to large scale. • 1. Species- a group of organisms so similar to one another that they can breed and produce fertile offspring
2. Populations- groups of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area.
3. Communities- different species that live together in a specific area. (ie: frogs, crickets & plants in a terrarium OR fish, turtle & seaweed in an aquarium.) a. All the LIVING parts of an environment.
4. Ecosystem- a collection of all the organisms that live in a particular place, together with their nonliving, or physical, environment a. Living + Nonliving parts of the environment
A. Levels of Organization (cont.) • 4. Ecosystem- a collection of all the organisms that live in a particular place, together with their nonliving, or physical, environment a. Living + Nonliving parts of the environment • 5. Biome- a group of ecosystems that have the same climate and dominant communities
Question 1 Population, Community, OR Ecosystem? Answer: Community
Question 2 Population, Community, OR Ecosystem? Answer: Population
Question 3 Population, Community, OR Ecosystem? Answer: Ecosystem
B. Producers • 1. Sunlight is the main energy source for life on Earth. • Of all the sun’s energy that reaches the Earth’s surface, only a small amount –less than three percent- is used by living things. • 2. Autotrophs capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use that energy to produce food. • a. Because autotrophs make, or produce, their own food, they are also called producers. • Only plants, some algae, and certain bacteria can use the sun’s energy. • Producers contain chlorophyllin their cells.
C. Consumers • 1. Organisms that rely on other organisms for their energy and food supply are called heterotrophs or consumers. • a. Herbivores - obtain energy by eating only plants. • b. Carnivores - obtain energy by eating only other animals. • c. Omnivores - obtain energy by eating both plants and animals. • d. Decomposers - obtain energy by eating dead plants and animals. Ex: bacteria and fungi (the most important decomposers)
C. Consumers (cont.) • 2. A primary consumer eats only producers. • Ex: cows eat grass • 3. A vital part of an ecosystem is the stability of its producers and decomposers
5 paragraph essay You have entered a travelling machine, however, the flux capacitor was not working correctly. You have no idea where you are. Create a story that describes the ecosystem you find yourself in. • You must include and correctly use the following terms in your concrete detail sentences: • Ecosystem, population, community, producer, consumer • When you are using the terms producer and consumer you must include somewhere in the paragraph: omnivore, herbivore, decomposer, and carnivore.
Warmup 3/29-3/30 please write • 1. Organisms that obtain energy by breaking down dead and decaying plants & animals are called _________ (herbivores/decomposers). • 2. ________ is the original source of almost all energy in most ecosystems. • 3. The sum total of living organisms in an ecosystem is called ________ (ecology/biodiversity). • 4. Fish, seaweed, and coral all living in an aquarium is an example of a _________ (population/community). • 5. ________ (ecology/biology) is the study of relationships among living organisms and their interactions with the physical environment.
D. Feeding Relationships • 1. Energy flows through an ecosystem in one direction, from the sun or inorganic compounds to autotrophs (producers) and then to various heterotrophs (consumers).
D. Feeding Relationships • 1. Energy flows through an ecosystem in one direction, from the sun to autotrophs (producers) and then to various heterotrophs (consumers). SUN Producers Consumers
D. Feeding Relationships • 1. Energy flows through an ecosystem in one direction, from the sun to autotrophs (producers) and then to various heterotrophs (consumers). • a. Food Chains • i. The energy stored by producers can be passed through an ecosystem along a food chain, a series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten.
Food Chain • Algae • Zooplankton • Shark Producer Primary Consumer Secondary Consumer
D. Feeding Relationships (cont.) • b. Food Web • i. it is called a food web when the feeding relationships among the various organisms in an ecosystem form a network of complex interactions. • ii. A food web is a model of the feeding relationships between many different consumers and producers • iii. A food web links all the food chains in an ecosystem together.
Hoo Eats Who Owl: Sparrow, shrew, vole, bat, mouse, mole, beetle, grasshopper Sparrow: Beetle, grasshopper, grass Shrew: Mice, beetle, grasshopper Vole: Beetle, grasshopper, grass Bat: Beetle, grasshopper Mouse: Beetle, grasshopper, grass Mole: beetle, grasshopper Rabbit: grass Beetle: grass Grasshopper: grass
E. Ecological Pyramids • 1. An ecological pyramid is a diagram that shows the relative amounts of energy or matter contained within each trophic level in a food chain or food web. • a. Energy Pyramid- only 10% of the energy stored in an organism can be passed on to the next trophic level of the pyramid: RULE OF 10% • i. As you go up the pyramid, the amount of energy goes down. • ii. Of the remaining energy, some is used for the organism’s life processes and the rest is eliminated as heat. • iii. At the top of the pyramid would be sharks (or some carnivore) at the bottom grass or algae (or some other producer).
Ecological Pyramids HEAT HEAT HEAT HEAT
Create and label: • Food chain • Food web • Ecological pyramid
Feeding relationships • Grasshopper eats grass • Mouse eats grass • Grasshopper eats flower • Butterfly eats flower • Frog eats grasshopper • Frog eats butterfly • Dragonfly eats butterfly • Snake eats frog • Snake eats mouse • Hawk eats snake • Hawk eats mouse
Activity • 10% passed on • Life processes cost 10% • About 80% lost as heat
G. Recycling in the Biosphere • Unlike the one-way flow of energy, matter is recycled within and between ecosystems. • The Water Cycle- All livings things require water to survive. Water cycles between the ocean, atmosphere, and land.
G. Recycling in the Biosphere (cont.) • i. Evaporation- the process by which water turns to vapor which goes into the atmosphere. • ii. Transpiration- the process where plants release water vapor into the atmosphere. • iii. Respiration- the process by which a living thing exchanges gases with the environment atmosphere. • iv. Precipitation- rain falls down to Earth.
G. Recycling in the Biosphere (cont.) • c. The Carbon Cycle
G. Recycling in the Biosphere (cont.) • The Carbon Cycle • I. There are four different processes involved in the carbon cycle. • 1. Biological processes, such as photosynthesis, respiration, and decomposition of plants and animals. • a. Green plants and algae remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from air • b. Producers generate O2 (oxygen) and utilize CO2 (carbon dioxide)
G. Recycling in the Biosphere (cont.) • 2. Geochemical processes, such as the release of carbon dioxide gas to the atmosphere by volcanoes. • 3. Mixed biogeochemical processes, such as the burial of carbon-rich remains of organisms and their conversion into fossil fuels. • 4. Complete burning of plant material returns carbon primarily to the atmosphere.
G. Recycling in the Biosphere (cont.) • d. The Nitrogen Cycle- the process of cycling nitrogen through the biosphere • i. All organisms require nitrogen to make amino acids, which in turn are used to build proteins • ii. Nitrogen fixation-the process when bacteria break down nitrogen into ammonia • iii. Denitrification- the process of converting nitrates into nitrogen gas, which are then released into the atmosphere • 1. Plants used nitrogen in the form of nitrates • iv. All animals must get nitrogen from plants.
G. Recycling in the Biosphere (cont.) Nitrogen gas (N2) Ammonia (NH3) Nitrates (NO3)
1. Evaporation • 2. Decomposers • 3. decreases • 4. Lost as heat • 5. Burn fossil fuels, burning trees • 6. Eating plants • 7. Nitrates
G. Recycling in the Biosphere (cont.) Nitrogen gas (N2) Nitrates (NO3)
Exit • 1.Which 2 processes return carbon dioxide back to the atmosphere? (respiration/condensation/ decomposition/ precipitation/combustion) • 2. What type of organism would be found at the top of an energy pyramid? • 3. Consumers release _______ (oxygen/carbon dioxide) which is required by (decomposers/producers). • 4. What percent of energy is available from one 1 trophic level to the next? ______% • 5. A diagram of all the food chains in an ecosystem is called a _________ _______. • 6. The organisms at the beginning of a food chain are called _______.
Warmup • Eco warmup 1/Graphic organizer
Pair share • What does the prefix bio- mean?
H. Biotic and Abiotic Factors Biotic factors- biological (living) factors in an ecosystem. • i. Ex: pine tree • Rabbits • Frogs
H. Biotic and Abiotic Factors • ii. A changing biotic factor would be something living that changes ex: seasonal migration of birds