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Ecology Define Ecology Define Ecology study of the interactions that take place among organisms and their environment Describe each of the following terms: Biosphere Biotic Abiotic Describe each of the following terms:

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define ecology3
Define Ecology
  • study of the interactions that take place among organisms and their environment
describe each of the following terms5
Describe each of the following terms:
  • Biosphere - part of Earth that supports life, including the top portion of Earth's crust, the atmosphere, and all the water on Earth's surface
  • Biotic - living
  • Abiotic – non-living
describe each of the following terms7
Describe each of the following terms:
  • Biome - large geographic areas with similar climates and ecosystems
  • Includes:
    • TUNDRA
    • TAIGA
    • DESERT
    • TROPICAL RAINFOREST
    • TEMPERATE RAINFOREST
    • DECIDUOUS FOREST
    • DESERT
    • GRASSLAND
describe each of the following terms8
Describe each of the following terms:
  • Organism
  • Population
  • Community
describe each of the following terms9
Describe each of the following terms:
  • Organism – one of any living thing
  • Population - all the organisms that belong to the same species living in a community
  • Community - all the populations of different species that live in an ecosystem
describe each of the following terms11
Describe each of the following terms:
  • Ecosystem - all the living organisms that live in an area and the nonliving features of their environment
  • Habitat - place where an organism lives and that provides the types of food, shelter, moisture, and temperature needed for survival
  • Niche - in an ecosystem, refers to the unique ways an organism survives, obtains food and shelter, and avoids danger
describe each of the following terms12
Describe each of the following terms:
  • Limiting factor
  • Carrying capacity
describe each of the following terms13
Describe each of the following terms:
  • Limiting factor - anything that can restrict the size of a population, including living and nonliving features of an ecosystem, such as predators or drought
  • Carrying capacity - largest number of individuals of a particular species that an ecosystem can support over time
describe each of the following terms14
Describe each of the following terms:
  • Producer
  • Consumer
  • Decomposer
describe each of the following terms15
Describe each of the following terms:
  • Producer - organism, such as a green plant or alga, that uses an outside source of energy like the Sun to create energy-rich food molecules
  • Consumer -  organism that cannot create energy-rich molecules but obtains its food by eating other organisms
  • Decomposer – consume wastes and dead organisms
describe each of the following terms17
Describe each of the following terms:
  • Predator – an animal that hunts and kills other animals for food. A predator is a consumer [carnivore or omnivore]
  • Prey – an animal that is hunted and caught for food. Prey is a consumer; it may be a herbivore, omnivore, or carnivore.
describe each of the following terms18
Describe each of the following terms:
  • Carnivore
  • Herbivore
  • Omnivore
describe each of the following terms19
Describe each of the following terms:
  • Carnivore – eat omnivores or other carnivores [other consumers]
  • Herbivore – eat producers
  • Omnivore – eat producers and consumers
describe each of the following terms20
Describe each of the following terms:
  • Adaptations of consumers:
    • Carnivore - meat-eating animal with sharp canine teeth specialized to rip and tear flesh
    • Herbivore - plant-eating mammal with incisors specialized to cut vegetation and large, flat molars to grind it
    • Omnivore - plant- and meat-eating animal with incisors specialized to cut vegetables, premolars to chew meat, and molars to grind food
review food chains herbivores carnivores omnivores decomposers

Review food chains, herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, decomposers

http://www.planetpals.com/foodchain.html

describe each of the following terms22
Describe each of the following terms:
  • Energy flow through an ecosystem
describe each of the following terms23
Describe each of the following terms:
  • Energy flow through an ecosystem - the movement of energy through an ecosystem through food webs. The transfer of energy from one organism to another.
describe each of the following terms26
Describe each of the following terms:
  • Food chain - chain of organisms along which energy , in the form of food passes. An organism feeds on the link before it and is in turn prey for the link after it.
  • Food web - Complex network of many interconnected food chains and feeding relationships; a group of interconnecting food chains
review food chains here

Review food chains here:

http://www.vtaide.com/png/foodchains.htm

describe each of the following terms29
Describe each of the following terms:
  • Energy pyramid – a way of showing energy flow. As the amount of available energy decreases, the pyramid gets smaller. Each layer on a pyramid is called a trophic level.
review energy pyramids here

Review energy pyramids here:

http://www.ftexploring.com/me/pyramid.html

describe each of the following terms32
Describe each of the following terms:
  • Mutualism
  • Commensalism
  • Symbiosis
  • Parasitism
describe each of the following terms33
Describe each of the following terms:
  • Mutualism - a type of symbiotic relationship in which both organisms benefit
  • Commensalism - a type of symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other organism is not affected
  • Symbiosis - any close relationship between species, including mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism
  • Parasitism -a type of symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other organism is harmed
describe each of the following terms34
Describe each of the following terms:
  • Succession
  • Primary succession
  • Secondary succession
describe each of the following terms35
Describe each of the following terms:
  • Succession - natural, gradual changes in the types of species that live in an area; can be primary or secondary
  • Primary succession – takes where no soil exists
  • Secondary succession – takes place where soil is already present
describe each of the following terms36
Describe each of the following terms:
  • Pioneer species
  • Climax community
describe each of the following terms37
Describe each of the following terms:
  • Pioneer species - a group of hardy organisms, such as lichens, found in the primary stage of succession and that begin an area's soil-building process
  • Climax community - stable, end stage of ecological succession in which the plants and animals of a community use resources efficiently and balance is maintained by disturbances such as fire.
review succession here

Review succession here:

http://library.thinkquest.org/17456/succession1.html

list the types of biomes40
List the types of biomes:
  • Tundra
  • Taiga
  • Desert
  • Tropical rain forest
  • Temperate rain forest
  • Grasslands
  • Freshwater
  • Saltwater
describe each biome
Describe each biome
  • Taiga - world's largest biome, located south of the tundra between 50° N and 60° N latitude; has long, cold winters, precipitation between 35 cm and 100 cm each year, cone-bearing evergreen trees, and dense forests
describe each biome42
Describe each biome
  • Tundra - cold, dry, treeless biome with less than 25 cm of precipitation each year, a short growing season, permafrost, and winters that can be six to nine months long
describe each biome43
Describe each biome
  • Temperate rainforest - biome with 200 cm to 400 cm of precipitation each year, average temperatures between 9°C and 12°C, and forests dominated by trees with needlelike leaves
describe each biome44
Describe each biome
  • Tropical rain forest - most biologically diverse biome; has an average temperature of 25°C and receives between 200 cm and 600 cm of precipitation each year
describe each biome45
Describe each biome
  • Grasslands - temperate and tropical regions with 25 cm to 75 cm of precipitation each year that are dominated by climax communities of grasses; ideal for growing crops and raising cattle and sheep
describe each biome46
Describe each biome
  • Desert - driest biome on Earth with less than 25 cm of rain each year; has dunes or thin soil with little organic matter and plants and animals specially adapted to survive extreme conditions
describe each biome47
Describe each biome
  • Deciduous forest - biome usually having four distinct seasons, annual precipitation between 75 cm and 150 cm, and climax communities of deciduous trees
describe each biome48
Describe each biome
  • Freshwater - flowing water such as rivers and streams and standing water such as lakes, ponds, and wetlands
describe each biome49
Describe each biome
  • Saltwater - oceans, seas, a few inland lakes, such as the Great Salt Lake in Utah, coastal inlets and estuaries
review biomes here

Review biomes here:

http://www.cotf.edu/ete/modules/msese/earthsysflr/biomes.html