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Ecology

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  1. Ecology Chapter 2

  2. Ecology • Ecology is the scientific discipline in which the relationships among living organisms and the interaction the organisms have with their environments are studied

  3. Milestones in Ecology • 1872 Yellowstone becomes the 1st National Park in the U.S. • 1987 The U.S. and other countries sign the Montreal Protocol in agreement to phase out the use of chemical compounds that deplete the ozone layer (CFC)

  4. Biosphere • The biosphere is the portion of Earth that supports life. • This is where ecologists study organisms and their environment

  5. Biotic Factors • Biotic factors are the living factors in an organism’s environment • Biotic factors include all of the organisms that live in the water, land and microscopic organisms

  6. Abiotic Factors • These are nonliving factors in an organism’s environment • This factors include: temperature, air, water currents, sunlight, soil type, rainfall, or available nutrients

  7. Levels of Organization • The biosphere is too large and complex for most ecological studies. Therefore the biosphere is split into different levels. • These levels increase in complexity as the numbers and interactions between organisms increase

  8. Organism • Population • Biological community • Ecosystem • Biome • biosphere

  9. Movie Time http://glencoe.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0078802849/student_view0/unit1/chapter2/concepts_in_motion.html#

  10. Community Interactions • Competition occurs when more than one organism uses a resource at the same time • Predation is the act of one organism consuming another organism for food

  11. Symbiotic Relationships • Symbiosis is the close relationship that exists when two or more species live together

  12. Mutualism • Mutualism is when two or more organisms benefit from each other • Ex: One example is the relationship between sea anemones and clown fish: the anemones provide the fish with protection from predators and the fish defends the anemones against butterfly fish which eat anemones.

  13. Commensalism • Commensalism is a relationship in which one organism benefits and the other organisms in neither helped nor harmed

  14. Parasitism • Parasitism is a relationship in which one organism benefits at the expense of another organism • Ex: ticks on an animal or bacteria or worms inside the animal

  15. The relationship between a bee and a flower?

  16. The relationship between a mosquito and a human?

  17. The relationship between a tree and a bird’s nest?

  18. The relationship between a tick and a rabbit?

  19. The relationship between a Sycamore tree and a squirrel’s home?

  20. The relationship between a Grouper and a cleaning goby?

  21. Your Turn! • Think of two different relationships between organisms you have heard of or seen • Describe both relationships and determine which category they fall into: mutualism, commensalism, or parasitism