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Sheet Metal Forming. 2.810 Fall 2002 Professor Tim Gutowski. Minoan gold pendant of bees encircling the Sun, showing the use of granulation, from a tomb at Mallia, 17th century BC. In the Archaeological Museum, Iráklion, Crete. Historical Note;.

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Sheet Metal Forming

2.810 Fall 2002

Professor Tim Gutowski

Minoan gold pendant of bees encircling the Sun, showing the use of granulation, from a tomb at Mallia, 17th century BC. In the Archaeological Museum, Iráklion, Crete.

Sheet metal stamping was developed as a mass production technology for the production of bicycles around the 1890’s. This technology played an important role in making the system of interchangeable parts economical (perhaps for the first time).

Steps in Sprocket making

Basic Sheet Forming Processes(from http://www.menet.umn.edu/~klamecki/Forming/mainforming.html)

Shearing

Drawing

Bending

T

Punch

D

Die

Part or slug

Shearing Operation Force Requirement

F = 0.7 T L (UTS)

T = Sheet Thickness

L = Total length Sheared

UTS = Ultimate Tensile Strength of material

Y/2

s

Y

Yield Criteria

tmax = (1/2) Y

tmax = (2/3)1/2 Y

Tresca

Mises

Die

Bending Force Requirement

Force

Punch

T = Sheet Thickness

W = Total Width Sheared

(into the page)

L =Span length

UTS = Ultimate Tensile Strength of material

T

L

Engineering Strain during Bending: e = 1/((2R/T) + 1)

Minimum Bend radius: R = T ((50/r) – 1)

r = tensile area reduction

in percent

thickness of the part

Y

Y

yY

s

s

s

h

-Y

-Y

Elastic

Elastic-plastic

Fully plastic

• Over-bend

• Bottom

• Stretch

tension

compression

Bending & Stretching

Pre-stretching

Wrapping

Release

* source: http://www.cyrilbath.com/sheet_process.html

F = (YS + UTS)/2 * A

F = stretch forming force (lbs)

YS = material yield strength (psi)

UTS = ultimate tensile strength of the material (psi)

A = Cross-sectional area of the workpiece (in2)

• Example of Force Calculation

• Calculate the force required to stretch form a wing span having a cross-sectional area of .50X120” made from 2219 aluminum alloy having a yield strength of 36,000 psi and a UTS of 52,000 psi:

• F = 88000/2 * 60 = 2,640,000 lbs = 1320 tons

• Calculate the force required to shear a 10” diameter, 1/8” thick blank from mild steel with a UTS of 45,000 psi:

• F = 0.7 (.125)(p)(10) 45,000 = 62 tons

• 10 - 11 panels

• 3 to 5 dies each

• ~\$0.5M each

• ~\$20M investment

Material selection is critical in both product and process design.

Formability is the central material property.

This property must be balanced with other product and process considerations such as strength, weight, cost, and corrosion resistance.

Auto vs. Aerospace Example

Auto Body Panel Airplane Body Panel

Progressive stamping stretch forming

1010 Steel, cold-rolled 2024 Aluminum, T3 temper

.04” sheet, custom order .08” sheet, oversize

Cost ~ \$.35-.45/lb Cost ~ \$4.0/lb

UTS ~ 300 MPa UTS ~ 470 MPa

YS ~ 185 MPa YS ~ 325 MPa

Elongation ~ 42% Elongation ~ 20%

n = .26 n = .16

Mylar Protection Applied

‘Burr’ Edges in tension

Stretch Forming

Index to Block

Chemical Milling

‘Burr’ Edges and Inspect

Hand Trim

Process Flow for Automobile Door Stamping Operation

Raw material

Blank material starting dimensions

Drawing

Pierce

Restrike

Flange

• Stretch Forming Advantages over Stamping

• Tighter tolerances are possible: as tight as .0005 inches on large aircraft parts

• Little problem with either wrinkling or spring back

• Large, gently contoured parts from thin sheets

• Stretch forming Disadvantages over Stamping

• Complex or sharply cornered shapes are difficult or impossible to form

• Material removal – blanking, punching, or trimming – requires secondary operations

• Requires special preparation of the free edges prior to forming

x

h

L

b

r = 1/K

M

M

y

sY

s

E

e

ey

Elastic Springback Analysis

• Assume plane sections remain plane:

• ey = - y/r (1)

• Assume elastic-plastic behavior for material

• = E e e e 

• Y e e

MY

EI

EI

1/r

1/rY

1/R1

1/R0

3. We want to construct the following

Bending Moment “M” vs. curvature “1/r” curve

Springback is measured as 1/R0 – 1/R1 (2)

Permanent set is 1/R1

Y

Y

yY

s

s

s

h

-Y

-Y

Elastic

Elastic-plastic

Fully plastic

s

dA

ds

b

5. M = As y dA

y

dy

h

Elastic region

(3)

At the onset of plastic behavior

s = - y/r E = - h/2r E = -Y (4)

This occurs at

1/r = 2Y / hE = 1/rY (5)

Substitution into eqn (3) gives us the moment at on-set of yield, MY

MY = - EI/rY = EI 2Y / hE = 2IY/h (6)

After this point, the M vs 1/r curve starts to “bend over.” Note from M=0 to M=MY the curve is linear.

In the elastic – plastic region

yY

s

(7)

Note at yY=h/2, you get on-set at yield, M = MY

And at yY=0, you get fully plastic moment, M = 3/2 MY

To write this in terms of M vs 1/rrather than M vs yY, note that the yield curvature (1/r)Ycan be written as (see eqn (1))

(8)

Where eY is the strain at yield. Also since the strain at yY is -eY, we can write

(9)

Combining (8) and (9) gives

(10)

M

MY

EI

EI

1/r

1/rY

1/R1

1/R0

Substitution into (7) gives the result we seek:

(11)

(12)

Now, eqn’s (12) and (13) intersect at 1/r = 1/R0

Hence,

Rewriting and using 1/r = 2Y / hE, we get

(13)

• Tailored blanks

• Binder force control

• Segmented dies

• Quick exchange of dies

• Alternative materials; cost issues

Tool

Pallet

Parking Lot

Press Motion

Tool Setup

Actuators

Passive

Tool

Programmable

Tool

6

0

1

.

6

1

.

4

5

0

M

A

X

1

.

2

R

M

S

4

0

1

MAXIMAL SHAPE ERROR

[x0.001 in.]

RMS Error [x0.001 in.]

3

0

0

.

8

0

.

6

2

0

0

.

4

1

0

0

.

2

S

Y

S

T

E

M

E

R

R

O

R

T

H

R

E

S

H

O

L

D

0

0

P

1

P

2

P

3

P

4

P

A

R

T

C

Y

C

L

E

6 feet

Stretch Forming with Reconfigurable Tool @ Northrop Grumman

Stamping and TPS: Quick Exchange of Dies

• Ref. Shigeo Shingo, “A Revolution in Manufacturing:

• The SMED System” Productivity Press. 1985

• Simplify, Organize, Standardize,

• Convert Internal to External Set-Ups

0.03 thick

7.6 lb

40% scrap

\$4.25 mat’l cost

400/hr

5 workers

\$18.90/hr (Union)

\$0.24 labor cost

\$5,000,000 equipment

\$900,000 tools

\$7.71 unit cost at 100,000 units

\$0.65/lb

.0.12 thick

7.0 lb

6% scrap

\$4.84 mat’l cost

40/hr

\$12.50/hr (non-Union)

\$0.63 labor cost

\$1,200,000 eqipment

\$250,000 tools

\$7.75 unit cost at 100,000 units

ComparisonSteel Vs SMC

Ref John Busch

Cost comparison between sheet steel and plastics and composites for automotive panels ref John Busch

Environment composites for automotive panels

• punching Vs machining

• hydraulic fluids and lubricants

• scrap

• energy

• painting, cleaning

Steel can production at Toyo Seikan composites for automotive panels

See Appendix D; http://itri.loyola.edu/ebm/

Summary composites for automotive panels

• Note on Historical Development

• Materials and Basic Mechanics

• Aerospace and Automotive Forming

• New Developments

• Environmental Issues

• Solidworks and Metal Forming your Chassis