**Chapter 3** Introduction to Linear Programming

**Introduction** • Linear programming • Programming means planning • Model contains linear mathematical functions • An application of linear programming • Allocating limited resources among competing activities in the best possible way • Applies to wide variety of situations

**3.1 Prototype Example** • Wyndor Glass Co. • Produces windows and glass doors • Plant 1 makes aluminum frames and hardware • Plant 2 makes wood frames • Plant 3 produces glass and assembles products

**Prototype Example** • Company introducing two new products • Product 1: 8 ft. glass door with aluminum frame • Product 2: 4 x 6 ft. double-hung, wood-framed window • Problem: What mix of products would be most profitable? • Assuming company could sell as much of either product as could be produced

**Prototype Example** • Products produced in batches of 20 • Data needed • Number of hours of production time available per week in each plant for new products • Production time used in each plant for each batch of each new product • Profit per batch of each new product

**Prototype Example**

**Prototype Example** • Formulating the model x1 = number of batches of product 1 produced per week x2 = number of batches of product 2 produced per week Z = total profit per week (thousands of dollars) from producing these two products • From bottom row of Table 3.1

**Prototype Example** • Constraints (see Table 3.1) • Classic example of resource-allocation problem • Most common type of linear programming problem

**Prototype Example** • Problem can be solved graphically • Two dimensional graph with x1 and x2 as the axes • First step: identify values of x1 and x2 permitted by the restrictions • See Figures 3.1 and Figure 3.2 • Next step: pick a point in the feasible region that maximizes value of Z • See Figure 3.3

**Prototype Example**

**Prototype Example**

**Prototype Example**

**3.2 The Linear Programming Model** • General problem terminology and examples • Resources: money, particular types of machines, vehicles, or personnel • Activities: investing in particular projects, advertising in particular media, or shipping from a particular source • Problem involves choosing levels of activities to maximize overall measure of performance

**The Linear Programming Model**

**The Linear Programming Model** • Standard form

**The Linear Programming Model** • Other legitimate forms • Minimizing (rather than maximizing) the objective function • Functional constraints with greater-than-or-equal-to inequality • Some functional constraints in equation form • Some decision variables may be negative

**The Linear Programming Model** • Feasible solution • Solution for which all constraints are satisfied • Might not exist for a given problem • Infeasible solution • Solution for which at least one constraint is violated • Optimal solution • Has most favorable value of objective function • Might not exist for a given problem

**The Linear Programming Model** • Corner-point feasible (CPF) solution • Solution that lies at the corner of the feasible region • Linear programming problem with feasible solution and bounded feasible region • Must have CPF solutions and optimal solution(s) • Best CPF solution must be an optimal solution

**3.3 Assumptions of Linear Programming** • Proportionality assumption • The contribution of each activity to the value of the objective function (or left-hand side of a functional constraint) is proportional to the level of the activity • If assumption does not hold, one must use nonlinear programming (Chapter 13)

**Assumptions of Linear Programming** • Additivity • Every function in a linear programming model is the sum of the individual contributions of the activities • Divisibility • Decision variables in a linear programming model may have any values • Including noninteger values • Assumes activities can be run at fractional values

**Assumptions of Linear Programming** • Certainty • Value assigned to each parameter of a linear programming model is assumed to be a known constant • Seldom satisfied precisely in real applications • Sensitivity analysis used

**3.4 Additional Examples** • Example 1: Design of radiation therapy for Mary’s cancer treatment • Goal: select best combination of beams and their intensities to generate best possible dose distribution • Dose is measured in kilorads

**Example 1: Radiation Therapy Design**

**Example 1: Radiation Therapy Design** • Linear programming model • Using data from Table 3.7

**Example 1: Radiation Therapy Design** • A type of cost-benefit tradeoff problem

**Example 2: Reclaiming Solid Wastes** • SAVE-IT company collects and treats four types of solid waste materials • Materials amalgamated into salable products • Three different grades of product possible • Fixed treatment cost covered by grants • Objective: maximize the net weekly profit • Determine amount of each product grade • Determine mix of materials to be used for each grade

**Example 2: Reclaiming Solid Wastes**

**Example 2: Reclaiming Solid Wastes**

**Example 2: Reclaiming Solid Wastes** • Decision variables (for i = A, B, C; j = 1,2,3,4) number of pounds of material j allocated to product grade i per week • See Pages 56-57 in the text for solution

**3.5 Formulating and Solving Linear Programming Models on a** Spreadsheet • Excel and its Solver add-in • Popular tools for solving small linear programming problems

**Formulating and Solving Linear Programming Models on a** Spreadsheet • The Wyndor example • Data entered into a spreadsheet

**Formulating and Solving Linear Programming Models on a** Spreadsheet • Changing cells • Cells containing the decisions to be made • C12 and D12 in the Wyndor example below

**Formulating and Solving Linear Programming Models on a** Spreadsheet

**Formulating and Solving Linear Programming Models on a** Spreadsheet

**3.6 Formulating Very Large Linear Programming Models** • Actual linear programming models • Can have hundreds or thousands of functional constraints • Number of decision variables may also be very large • Modeling language • Used to formulate very large models in practice • Expedites model management tasks

**Formulating Very Large Linear Programming Models** • Modeling language examples • AMPL, MPL, OPL, GAMS, and LINGO • Example problem with a huge model • See Pages 73-78 in the text

**3.7 Conclusions** • Linear programming technique applications • Resource-allocation problems • Cost-benefit tradeoffs • Not all problems can be formulated to fit a linear programming model • Alternatives: integer programming or nonlinear programming models