Early Modern World: European Colonial Empires
New Netherland • The Dutch claimed the region around present day New York based on Henry Hudson’s explorations. • Set up a successful fur trade with the native people. • The Dutch government gave control of the colony to the Dutch West India Company. • In 1624, 30 families came to Fort Orange (present day Albany) with more families establishing a second for at the tip of Manhattan Island.
New Netherland • This settlement was named New Amsterdam after the Dutch city of Amsterdam. • The city of New Amsterdam, because of its harbor, became a leading center for trade.
The English Colonies • The first permanent English colony in the New World was established by a private company at Jamestown, Virginia in 1607. • The first settlers were men who came in search of gold, but became a successful settlement by growing tobacco to sale in Europe.
The English Colonies • A second English colony was founded by a Protestant group known as the Pilgrims and landed at Plymouth Rock. • The Puritans landed at nearby Massachusetts Bay in 1630. • They came to practice their own religious beliefs without persecution. • Eventually the number of English colonies along the Atlantic coast expanded to 13—from Georgia to Massachusetts.
Early modern World: The Atlantic Slave Trade
The Atlantic Slave Trade • Finding workers who could survive in the colonies became a problem, which led to the most negative aspect of the European conquest of the Americas—the rise of the slave trade. • Slavery had existed in Africa long before Europe intervened and expanded the institution of slavery on a scale unparalleled in human history.
The Atlantic Slave Trade • Enslaved peoples were usually captured by African tribes, brought to the West Coast where they were imprisoned, and traded to European and American slave traders in exchange for guns and other goods.
The Atlantic Slave Trade • It is estimated that as many as 15 million African men and women were taken from Africa over the next 300 years. • More than 11 million of these went to Spanish colonies.
The Atlantic Slave Trade • Many died during the “Middle Passage,” the voyage across the Atlantic, because of the horrible conditions they endured on board the ships. • Once they arrived in the Americas, Africans worked long hours in the sugar fields of the Caribbean and Brazil, or raising tobacco and cotton in North America.
The Legacy of the Transatlantic slave trade on Africa • Encouraged African Warfare • Encouraged tribes to go to war with each other to obtain slaves to trade for European guns, run, and other goods.
The Legacy of the Transatlantic slave trade on Africa • Disrupted African Culture • Destroyed much of Africa’s rich heritage and disrupted its development. • It created a legacy of violence, bitterness, and social upheaval.
The Legacy of the Transatlantic slave trade on Africa • Increased Cultural Diffusion • The exchange of ideas and goods increased. • Slave traders brought new weapons and other goods to Africa, while slaves brought their beliefs, legends, and music to the Americas.
Early Modern World: The Age of Kings
Age of Kings The decline of feudalism, the Renaissance, the Protestant Reformation, and the Commercial Revolution all helped greatly increase the power of European monarchs (hereditary rulers).
Wars of Religion During the Reformation, most kings took control of religion within their borders. Henry VIII made himself the head of the national church. Provided kings with the opportunity to build large standing armies, to introduce new government officials (bureaucrats), and to increases taxes.
Changing Roles of Nobility In the 1600s, rulers like Louis XIV “tamed” the nobility. Louis XIV built a magnificent palace at Versailles where the nobility were forced to live by his side, under his watchful eye. Nobles kept their wealth and privileges but were expected to obey the king’s commands.
New Justifications for Royal Power Many rulers adopted the Renaissance view of basing their actions on “reason of the state.” Thomas Hobbes, wrote that man was not naturally good and needed a strong central authority to keep order. Hobbes said that kings were justified in seizing absolute power because only they could act impartially to maintain order in society. Monarchs like James I of England and Louis XIV of France justified their power on the basis of divine right—a king was God’s deputy on Earth and expressed God’s wishes.
Louis XIV Absolutism is a monarch’s total control over his subjects. Louis XIV’s will was law. Any critic who challenged him was punished. He demanded that Protestants convert to Catholicism or leave France. Developed a large army with standardized uniforms, housing, and training. In the end, Louis’ actions served to unite Europe against France, leaving his country bankrupt and exhausted at his death.
Absolutism in Russia The majority of Russia’s population was serfs. In return for their power over the serfs, Russian nobility pledged absolute loyalty to the Tsar.
Peter the Great Turned Russia from a backwards nation to a modern power by introducing western ideas, culture, and technology. He executed his mutinous palace guard and built an army modeled after the armies of the West. He used force to make old Russian nobles shave their beards and wear clothing of the West.
Peter the Great He defeated Sweden and Turkey, took control of the Church, imported foreign workers, and opened new schools. Moved the capital of Russia from Moscow to St. Petersburg, a modern city he ordered to be built on the Baltic coast so that Russia would have a “window to the west.”
Catherine the Great Catherine II continued Peter’s policies of expansion and Westernization. Promoted limited reform, corresponded with French thinkers, and granted her nobles their own charter rights. The condition of the serfs worsened. Defeated the Ottoman Empire, expanded Russia’s border to the Black Sea, and carved up Poland with her neighbors.