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Japan in the Modern World

Japan in the Modern World. The Path to Modernity. Tokugawa Isolation and Commodore Perry. Tokugawa Japan: What was it like?. Over 200 years of peace Both Daimyo and samurai become impoverished Samurai became bureaucrats Other samurai became merchants—beginning of market economy

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Japan in the Modern World

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  1. Japan in the Modern World The Path to Modernity

  2. Tokugawa Isolation and Commodore Perry

  3. Tokugawa Japan: What was it like? • Over 200 years of peace • Both Daimyo and samurai become impoverished • Samurai became bureaucrats • Other samurai became merchants—beginning of market economy • Isolation from the rest of the world • Buddhism and Confucianism are important • Sankin Kotai: alternate years of residence in Edo lead to development of roads and businesses

  4. Threat posed by the West -- Superior guns and arms --Knowledge of imperialism in Asia --imposition of unequal treaties --business and missionary interests

  5. Japan’s Revolution involves restoring the Emperor to direct rule • “outside” daimyo lead revolt • Aim to overthrow the Shogun and restore the emperor to power • Aim to get rid of foreigners and unequal treaties

  6. Body of English merchant, Charles Richardson killed in Japan

  7. British bombard Kagoshima

  8. French mission training Shogunal troops

  9. Alliance of Satsuma and Choshu • Emperor wanted to restore his power • Traditional enemies, Satsuma and Choshu unite against the Tokugawa • Both outside Hans with tradition of disliking the shogun • Rallying cry was “Sonno Joi”—restore the emperor, expel the barbarians

  10. The Last Shogun • Yoshinobu

  11. Satsuma Samurai plotting Restoration

  12. Shogunal forces burning the Satsuma Palace in Edo

  13. Saigo Takamori and the Boshin War

  14. The revolution inaugurates an era of reform Capital renamed Tokyo and Imperial court moves there. Daimyo “return” land to the emperor. Social classes abandoned, samurai disappear. Creation of conscript army: universal conscription based on Prussian model. Creation of navy based on English model. Flag Adopted

  15. Flag of Japan: the Rising Sun

  16. Commanders in Japanese army

  17. Japanese Navy

  18. Meiji Restoration • Everything Western becomes the fashion

  19. Promotion of State Shinto • Shinto shrines supported by the state • Everyone must register in the shrine • Separation from Buddhism • Downplay of Buddhism

  20. Shinto Shrine: Worship of the Emperor

  21. Promotion of Education • Charter Oath of 1868: “Knowledge shall be sought throughout the world so as to strengthen the foundations of Imperial rule” • Creation of Western Education system: elementary, secondary and university • 1972: mandatory 4 years education for all children: boys and girls

  22. Imperial Rescript on Education on 1890 • Loyalty to the emperor and the state: picture of the emperor in each classroom • Self sacrifice to the state and family • Filial piety applied to family AND “national family” including teachers, officials and employers • Taught what to think, not how to think

  23. Imperial Rescript on Education

  24. Problems in establishing the new system • Saigo Takemori and the Satsuma Rebellion

  25. Saigo Takamori leads the Satsuma Rebellion • Battle of Shiroyama Saigo and his army

  26. Rule by the Oligarchs • Privileged clique • Believers in Kokugaku (native studies) • Create conscript military • Abolish four classes of society • Send missions abroad such as Iwakura Mission

  27. Headed by Iawkura Tomomi Twofold goal—revise unequal treaties and learn about West 1871-1873: failed in first and succeeded in second Iwakura Mission

  28. Road to the Meiji Constitution of 1889: • Society of Patriots (Aikokusha) founded 1878 • Jiyuto (Liberal Party) founded in 1881 (French model) • Okuma Shigenobu founded the Constitutional Progressive Party advocating the British system • Imperial Rule Party established in 1882

  29. Itagaki Taisuke cerates the Society of Patriots (Aikokusha)

  30. Okuma Shigenobu creates the Constitutional Progressive Party

  31. Representation • 1875: Osaka Conference create independent judiciary • 1878: conference of Prefectural Governors established elected Prefectural assemblies • 1880: elected assemblies in villages and towns • 1880: delegates from 24 prefectures created the League for Establishing a National Assembly.

  32. Repression • 1875: laws prohibit press criticism of government • 1880: Public Assembly Law limits public gatherings and requires police permission for all meetings

  33. Constitution: Gift of the Emperor to his People • Imperial Diet: elected House of Representatives and House of Peers • Limited franchise: males over 25, who pay 15 yen national taxes; about 1% of population. • New Peerage created from old Daimyo and Samurai who helped the government • Diet approve legislation, initiate laws, submit petitions to emperor • Sovereignty resides with emperor

  34. Opening Ceremony of Japanese Diet

  35. Industrialization • Japanese abroad to look at Western models • Westerners hired to teach and set up modern factories • Goal: equal the West • Mercantile basis: import raw materials and export finished products • Zaibatsu: government and business work together • Establishment of the Bank of Japan

  36. Textiles were Japan’s largest export industry

  37. Inside the Tomioka Silk Reeling Mill

  38. Road to Imperialism • Conflict with China over Okinawan sailors attacked and killed in Taiwan (1873): first expedition of new military abroad • Involvement in Korea • Sino-Japanese war of 1894-95 • Triple Intervention: return of Liaodong Peninsula • Russo-Japanese war of 1904-1905

  39. Ryukyu Islands: Claimed by both China and Japan

  40. The French-built Matsushima, flagship • of the Imperial Japanese Navy during the Sino-Japanese conflict

  41. Hall where Treaty of Shimonoseki was signed, 1895

  42. Ito Hirobumi and Li Hongzhang: signers of Treaty of Shimonoseki

  43. Triple intervention: Russia, France, and Germany • Force Japan to return the Liaotung peninsula to China: Port Arthur (Lushun)

  44. Japanese troops landing in Korea during the Russo-Japanese War

  45. Japanese troops take Port Arthur

  46. Japanese Destroyer

  47. Japanese gun crew

  48. Japan lease Liaotung Peninsula Receive south half of Sakhalin Island Return Manchuria to China Free hand in Korea (exchange for US free hand in Philippines) Treaty of Portsmouth: 1905

  49. Annexation of Korea in 1910 as Japan’s second colony • Japan disbands the Korean army

  50. Japan officially makes Korea a colony: the Korean emperor accepts this in

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