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Children. 11. Socioemotional Development in Early Childhood. John W. Santrock. Socioemotional Development in Early Childhood. What Characterizes Young Children’s Socioemotional Development? What Roles Do Families Play in Young Children’s Development?

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slide1

Children

11

Socioemotional Development in Early Childhood

John W. Santrock

socioemotional development in early childhood
Socioemotional Development in Early Childhood
  • What Characterizes Young Children’s Socioemotional Development?
  • What Roles Do Families Play in Young Children’s Development?
  • How Are Peer Relations, Play, and Television Involved in Young Children’s Development?
the self

What Characterizes Young Children’s Socioemotional Development?

The Self
  • Initiative versus guilt
    • Third of Erikson’s eight stages
    • Initiative: enthusiasm for new activities; governed by conscience
    • Guilt: results when children’s efforts result in failure or criticism
self understanding
Self-Understanding
  • Child’s representation of self; substance and content of child’s self-conceptions
    • Self-recognition begins about 18 months
    • Young children view self in physical terms
    • Active dimension is central part of the self
emotional development

What Characterizes Young Children’s Socioemotional Development?

Emotional Development
  • Self-conscious (evaluative) emotions
    • First appear at about 2½ years
    • Pride: successful outcome results in joy
    • Shame: individual interpretation of own failure results in attack on entire self
    • Guilt: results from judging efforts as failure
    • Heavily influenced by parents’ responses
young children s understanding of emotions

What Characterizes Young Children’s Socioemotional Development?

Young Children’s Understanding of Emotions
  • Ages 4 to 5: children show increased ability to reflect on emotions
  • Self-regulation of emotions continues
  • Parents have important role in helping
    • Emotional-coaching: nurtures, uses praise
    • Emotional-dismissal: ignores, denies
emotions and peer relations

What Characterizes Young Children’s Socioemotional Development?

Emotions and Peer Relations
  • Emotions have major role
    • Moody, negative children experience greater peer rejection
    • Emotionally positive children are popular
    • Children controlling emotional responses are more likely to show social competence
moral development

What Characterizes Young Children’s Socioemotional Development?

Moral Development
  • Refers to rules and regulations about what people should do in interactions with other people
  • Piaget extensively researched children; two distinct stages of how children think about morality
imminent justice

What Characterizes Young Children’s Socioemotional Development?

Imminent Justice
  • Belief that if rule is broken, punishment will meted out immediately/automatically
    • Characteristic of heteronomous morality
    • Autonomous morality: realize punishment is not inevitable
    • Piaget: sophisticated thinking increases through give-and-take peer relations
moral behavior

What Characterizes Young Children’s Socioemotional Development?

Moral Behavior
  • Behavioral view
    • reinforcement, punishment, and imitation
  • Social cognitive view
    • influenced by situation, self-control development
  • Psychoanalytic view
    • superego, identity with same-sex parent’s values
  • Empathy and positive feelings
gender

What Characterizes Young Children’s Socioemotional Development?

Gender
  • Social and psychological dimension of being female or male
    • Gender role: set of expectations of how females or males should think, act, or feel
    • Gender typing: process for acquiring thoughts, feelings, and behaviors considered appropriate for one’s gender in their culture
biological influences on gender

What Characterizes Young Children’s Socioemotional Development?

Biological Influences on Gender
  • 46 chromosomes; 23rd pair
  • Sex hormones
    • Estrogens: influence female physical sex characteristics, help regulate menstrual cycle
    • Androgens: promote growth of male genitals and secondary characteristics; most important is testosterone
gender problems

What Characterizes Young Children’s Socioemotional Development?

Gender Problems
  • Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH): affects females, dislike typical-girl roles
  • Androgen-insensitive male: male with feminine body
  • Pelvic field defect: born with no penis
  • Genital loss and sex assignment
the evolutionary psychology view

What Characterizes Young Children’s Socioemotional Development?

The Evolutionary Psychology View
  • Differing reproductive roles led to different evolutionary pressures
    • Males: multiple sexual partners for more offspring; dispositions for competition, violence, and risk-taking
    • Females: devote efforts to parenting and choose long-term mate who can provide
social influences
Social Influences
  • Social role theory
    • Gender differences caused by contrasting social roles of women and men
    • Less power, status, and pay for women
    • Women show more cooperation
social influences17

What Characterizes Young Children’s Socioemotional Development?

Social Influences
  • Psychoanalytic theory of gender
    • Preschool child sexually attracted to opposite-sex parent
    • At age 5 to 6, anxious feelings cause identification with same-sex parent
    • Unconsciously adopts same-sex parent’s characteristics
social influences18

What Characterizes Young Children’s Socioemotional Development?

Social Influences
  • Social cognitive theory of gender
    • Gender develops through observation and imitation, use of rewards and punishments
  • Parental preferences for firstborn male
  • Parental influences and behaviors
social influences19
Social Influences
  • Gender and peer influences
    • Gender plays important role
    • Gender composition of groups: prefer same-sex groups by age 3, preference increases through age 12
    • Group size: boys prefer organized group games, associate in larger groups
social influences20

What Roles Do Families Play in Young Children’s Development?

Social Influences
  • Interaction in same-sex groups
    • Boys in groups engage in rough-and-tumble play, competition
    • Girls engage in collaborative discourse
    • More time in same-sex groups linked to more gender-stereotyped behavior
slide21

Same-Sex

Mixed-Group

75

50

Percent of social playtime

25

4.5 years old

6.5 years old

Developmental Changes in Percentage of Time Spent in Same-Sex and Mixed-Group Settings

Fig. 11.4

school and teacher influences on gender

What Characterizes Young Children’s Socioemotional Development?

School and Teacher Influences on Gender
  • Concerns of classroom gender biases
    • Girls
      • More compliant
      • Easily identify with and model teachers (majority are female)
school and teacher influences on gender23

What Characterizes Young Children’s Socioemotional Development?

School and Teacher Influences on Gender
  • Concerns of classroom gender biases
    • Boys:
      • Academic problems tend to be ignored
      • More learning problems
      • Receive more criticism
      • More likely stereotyped as having behavior problem
school and media influences on gender

What Characterizes Young Children’s Socioemotional Development?

School and Media Influences on Gender
  • Portrayals of men and women on TV
    • Females less competent
    • Most prime time characters are male
    • Traditional roles reinforced
    • 1980s–1990s: increased network sensitivity
  • Media print:
    • Most advertising reflects traditional roles
cognitive influences on gender

What Characterizes Young Children’s Socioemotional Development?

Cognitive Influences on Gender
  • Cognitive Developmental Theory
    • Gender-typed behavior occurs aftergender constancy is developed
    • Children prefer activities, objects, and attitudes consistent with this label
cognitive influences on gender26

What Characterizes Young Children’s Socioemotional Development?

Cognitive Influences on Gender
  • Gender Schema Theory
    • Children gradually develop schemas of what is gender-appropriate and gender-inappropriate in their culture
    • Gender schema: organizes world in terms of female and male
parenting

What Roles Do Families Play in Young Children’s Development?

Parenting
  • Socialization influenced by
    • Parenting styles
    • Sibling relationships
    • Context of family structure
classification of parenting styles

Classification of Parenting Styles

Classification of Parenting Styles

Accepting, responsive

Rejecting, unresponsive

Demanding, controlling

Undemanding, uncontrolling

parenting styles and ethnicity

What Roles Do Families Play in Young Children’s Development?

Parenting Styles and Ethnicity
  • Asian American families
    • Training yields positive outcomes
  • Latino childrearing
    • Encourage development of family and self- identity; requires respect and obedience
  • African American families
    • Use of nonabusive physical punishment
punishment and discipline

What Roles Do Families Play in Young Children’s Development?

Punishment and Discipline
  • Corporal (physical) punishment
    • Spanking linked to antisocial behaviors
    • Strong emotional support of parents reduces link
    • Associated with immediate compliance or aggression and lower levels of morality
    • Reasons to avoid physical punishment use
child abuse

What Roles Do Families Play in Young Children’s Development?

Child Abuse
  • Punishment sometimes leads to abuse
  • Types of child maltreatment
    • Physical
    • Child neglect
    • Sexual: fondling, penetration, exploitation
    • Emotional: psychological, verbal/mental
the context of abuse

What Roles Do Families Play in Young Children’s Development?

The Context of Abuse
  • Many factors cause child maltreatment; culture, family, and development
    • Regular diet of violence on television
    • Parents lacking sufficient resources or help
    • Context of family interactions
    • Parental history and beliefs
warning signs of abuse

What Roles Do Families Play in Young Children’s Development?

Warning Signs of Abuse
  • Questionable pattern of injuries
  • Age-inappropriate sexual knowledge
  • Poor hygiene, food hoarding, stealing
  • Behavioral extremes
developmental consequences of abuse

What Roles Do Families Play in Young Children’s Development?

Developmental Consequences of Abuse
  • Poor emotion regulation
  • Attachment and peer relation problems
  • School difficulties
  • Psychological problems
    • Anxiety, personality disorder, depression, suicide attempts, conduct disorder
  • Later risk of violence, substance abuse
coparenting

What Roles Do Families Play in Young Children’s Development?

Coparenting
  • Lack of parental cooperation and warmth
    • Undermining, disconnection of one parent
    • Places children at risk for problems
  • Parental cooperation and warmth
    • Linked to prosocial behaviors in children and competence in peer relations
good parenting

What Roles Do Families Play in Young Children’s Development?

Good Parenting
  • U.S. society: attitudes of parenting can be quick with little or no inconvenience
  • Nurture assumption: heredity and time with peers more important than time with parents
  • Good parenting takes time, no quick-fix
sibling relationships and birth order

What Roles Do Families Play in Young Children’s Development?

Sibling Relationships and Birth Order
  • Sibling relationships
    • Can be both pleasant and aggressive
    • Siblings treat children different than parents
    • Extensive conflict linked to poor outcomes
    • Birth order affects sibling relationships
working parents

What Roles Do Families Play in Young Children’s Development?

Working Parents
  • Many researchers find no detrimental effects of maternal employment
  • Greater risk of problems if:
    • Work stress spills into home
    • Mother works in child’s first year
single parent families in different countries

30

25

20

Percent of families with

children under 18

15

10

5

0

USA

Sweden

Canada

Germany

UK

Australia

France

Japan

What Roles Do Families Play in Young Children’s Development?

Single-Parent Families in Different Countries
divorced families

What Roles Do Families Play in Young Children’s Development?

Divorced Families
  • More likely to show poorer adjustment
  • Multiple divorce poses greater risks
  • Socially mature, responsible children show fewer behavioral problems
  • Less-competent children have lower self-esteem, more behavior problems
slide42

30

20

Percent of children showing serious emotional problems

10

0

Intact, never divorced

Divorced

Type of family

Divorce and Children’s Emotional Problems

25% of children from divorced families show serious emotional problems compared to only 10% of children from intact, never divorced families

Fig. 11.9

other divorce issues

What Roles Do Families Play in Young Children’s Development?

Other Divorce Issues
  • Should parents stay or go?
  • Family processes matter in divorce
  • Factors affecting child’s adjustments
    • Personality and temperament
    • Gender and maturity
    • Custody and relocation
    • Socioeconomic status
variations in families

What Roles Do Families Play in Young Children’s Development?

Variations in Families
  • Cross-Cultural
    • Warm, controlling style most common
  • Ethnicity
    • Linked to family size, structure, education, income, composition, extended networks
  • Socioeconomic Status
    • Linked to parenting styles, approaches to education
peer relations

How Are Peer Relations, Play, and Television Involved in Young Children’s Development?

Peer Relations
  • Peers:
    • individuals near same age or maturity level
    • Help children learn reciprocity, fairness, justice
    • Negative influences possible
functions of play

How Are Peer Relations, Play, and Television Involved in Young Children’s Development?

Functions of Play
  • Play: pleasurable activity engaged in for its own sake
  • Functions
    • Health, tension release, master conflicts
    • Affiliation with peers
    • Cognitive development and exploration
    • Therapists and play therapy
parten s categories of play

How Are Peer Relations, Play, and Television Involved in Young Children’s Development?

Parten’s Categories of Play

Unoccupied

Child not engaging in play as commonly understood; might stand in one spot

Solitary

Child plays alone, independently of others

Onlooker

Child watches other children play

Parallel

Child plays separately from others, but in manner that mimics their play

Associative

Play that involves social interaction with little or no organization

Cooperative

Play that involves social interaction in

group with sense of organized activity

types of play

How Are Peer Relations, Play, and Television Involved in Young Children’s Development?

Types of Play

Sensorimotor

Infants derive pleasure from exercising their sensorimotor schemes

Practice

Repetition of behavior when new skills are being learned

Pretense/Symbolic

Occurs when child transforms physical environment into symbol

Social

Involves social interactions with peers

Games

Activities engaged in for pleasure; include rules

television prosocial behavior and aggression

How Are Peer Relations, Play, and Television Involved in Young Children’s Development?

Television, Prosocial Behavior, and Aggression
  • Aggression
  • Prosocial behavior
  • Cognitive development
  • Achievement
slide50

2.9

2.8

2.82

2.7

2.6

2.5

2.53

Mean high school overall GPA

2.48

2.4

2.37

2.3

2.2

2.1

2.0

Quartiles of child informative viewing at age 5

Educational TV Viewing and Boys’ GPA

Amount and patterns of preschool TV viewing have a later impact on boys’ high school GPA

Fig. 11.11

the end

Children

11

The End