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Children. 6. Physical Development in Infancy. John W. Santrock. Physical Development in Infancy. How Do Infants Grow and Develop Physically? How Do Infants Develop Motor Skills? How Can Infants’ Sensory and Perceptual Development Be Characterized?.

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slide1

Children

6

Physical Development in Infancy

John W. Santrock

physical development in infancy
Physical Development in Infancy
  • How Do Infants Grow and Develop Physically?
  • How Do Infants Develop Motor Skills?
  • How Can Infants’ Sensory and Perceptual Development Be Characterized?
images of children

How Do Infants Grow and Develop Physically?

Images of Children
  • Bottle-feeding newborns in impoverished countries has become a trend
    • Formula mixed with unclean water
    • Bottles often unsterilized
    • Many children get common illnesses; may die
    • Breast milk would immunize newborn
    • Hospitals have vital role in educating mothers
cephalocaudal and proximodistal patterns

How Do Infants Grow and Develop Physically?

Cephalocaudal and Proximodistal Patterns
  • Cephalocaudal: size, weight, and feature differentiation gradually work from top to bottom
  • Proximodistal: growth starts at center of body and moves toward extremities
height and weight

How Do Infants Grow and Develop Physically?

Height and Weight
  • Average North American newborn is 20 inches and 7½ pounds
    • Birthweight doubled by age 4 months; tripled at end of first year
    • Growth during first year averages 1 inch per month
    • 1½ times birth length at end of 1st year
height and weight7

How Do Infants Grow and Develop Physically?

Height and Weight
  • Average 2-year-old
    • 26 to 32 pounds and 32 to 35 inches tall (almost half of their adult height)
    • Growth rate considerably slower in second year
brain development

How Do Infants Grow and Develop Physically?

Brain Development
  • Extensive growth in uteroand infancy
  • Shaken baby syndrome: brain swelling and hemorrhaging
  • Neuron: nerve cell; all present at birth
  • Dendrites
brain development9

How Do Infants Grow and Develop Physically?

Brain Development
  • Myelin sheath: layer of fat cells
    • Encases most axons
    • Insulates nerve cells
  • Synapses: tiny gaps
  • EEG activity spurts about 1½ to 2 years of age
slide10

The Neuron

Fig. 6.2

slide11

At birth

1 month

15 months

24 months

3 months

The Development of Dendrite Spreading

Fig. 6.3

brain development12

How Do Infants Grow and Develop Physically?

Brain Development
  • “Blooming” and “pruning”
  • Synaptic overproduction peaks about 4 months after birth
  • Prefrontal cortex overproduction peaks about 1 year of age
    • Adult density achieved in adolescence
    • Heredity and environment affect timing
slide13

Synaptic Density in Human Brain from Infancy to Adulthood

70

Newborn

Adolescence

60

50

40

Synaptic density

30

20

10

adult

0

6000

10,000

100

200

300

400

500

600

800

1000

1500

2000

3000

4000

8000

Age in days (from conception)

Fig. 6.4

brain s lobes and hemispheres

How Do Infants Grow and Develop Physically?

Brain’s Lobes and Hemispheres
  • Four lobes and two hemispheres
    • Cerebral cortex
      • Frontal lobe
      • Occipital lobe
      • Temporal lobe
      • Parietal lobe
    • Lateralization of hemispheres
slide15

(body sensations)

(voluntary movement and thinking)

Prefrontal cortex

(vision)

(hearing)

Fig. 6.6

The Brain’s Four Lobes

brain s lobes and hemispheres17

How Do Infants Grow and Develop Physically?

Brain’s Lobes and Hemispheres
  • Frontal lobe is immature in newborn
    • Ability to regulate physiological states and control reflexes in first year
    • Cognitive skills emerge later
    • More electrical activity in left hemisphere than right hemisphere when listening
early experience and the brain

How Do Infants Grow and Develop Physically?

Early Experience and the Brain
  • Environmental experiences important in brain’s development; enriched environments enhance growth
  • Infant’s brain waiting for experiences to determine connections among neurons
sleep

How Do Infants Grow and Develop Physically?

Sleep
  • Regulation of wake-sleep cycle reflects neurological maturation; cycles vary
  • REM (Rapid Eye Movement) sleep
    • Adults—fifth of sleep
    • Infants—half of sleep
    • May promote brain’s development in infancy
sleep20

How Do Infants Grow and Develop Physically?

Sleep
  • After about 4 months, infant has more adult-like sleep patterns
  • Culture Affects Sleep Patterns
    • Length of sleep periods related to sleeping arrangements and parental activities
sleep and culture

How Do Infants Grow and Develop Physically?

Sleep and Culture
  • Culture and Sleeping Arrangements
    • Sharing bed common in many cultures
    • Crib/separate room common in U.S.
    • American Academy of Pediatrics discourages co-sleeping because of stress and SIDS risk
slide22

24

16

14

12

10

Total daily sleep (hours)

8

6

4

2

0

6 mo

12 mo

18 mo

2 yrs

10 yrs

20 yrs

30 yrs

40 yrs

50 yrs

60 yrs

70 yrs

80 yrs

90 yrs

1-15 days

Newborn

Infants

Children

Adolescents

Adults

Older adults

Fig. 6.7

Sleep Across the Human Life Span

sudden infant death syndrome sids

How Do Infants Grow and Develop Physically?

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)
  • Infant stops breathing, usually during night, and dies without apparent cause
    • Also known as “crib death”
    • Prone sleeping reduces risk by 5 to 10 times
sudden infant death syndrome sids24

How Do Infants Grow and Develop Physically?

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)
  • Increased risks if:
    • Lower birthweight
    • Siblings with SIDS
    • Sleep apnea
    • Lower SES groups
    • Exposure to cigarette smoke
    • Placement in soft bedding
nutrition

How Do Infants Grow and Develop Physically?

Nutrition
  • Healthy infants need
    • Loving, supportive feeding environment
    • 50 calories per day per pound of weight
    • Fat; very important for growth
    • Breast milk (nature’s food)
    • Demand feeding becoming more popular
breast feeding versus bottle feeding

How Do Infants Grow and Develop Physically?

Breast-Feeding Versus Bottle-Feeding
  • Breast-feeding recommended
    • Appropriate weight gain, lowers obesity risk
    • Prevents or reduces allergies and infections
    • Promotes neurological and cognitive growth
    • Lowers risk of SIDS and cancers
    • Better visual acuity and bone density
    • The only option in poor countries
malnutrition in infancy

How Do Infants Grow and Develop Physically?

Malnutrition in Infancy
  • Infants can develop
    • Marasmus: wasting away of body tissues in infant’s first year, severe lack of protein
    • Kwashiorkor: deficiency in protein; child’s abdomen, feet become swollen with water
    • If not fatal, effects are detrimental; lowest SES aided most by supplementary feeding
toilet training

How Do Infants Grow and Develop Physically?

Toilet Training
  • Ability to control affected by muscular maturity and motivation
    • Average child ready at age 2
    • Controversy exists over “delaying” training
      • Readiness approach recommended
health

How Do Infants Grow and Develop Physically?

Health
  • Immunization begins in infancy
  • Accident Prevention
    • Increased monitoring needed in infancy
    • Asphyxiation: leading cause of death under 1
    • Chocking hazards: toys, food
    • Burn risks: sun, electrical, heaters, hot water
    • Other risks: car accidents, cuts, pet bites
dynamic systems theory

How Do Infants Develop Motor Skills?

Dynamic Systems Theory
  • How infants acquire motor skills
  • Perceptions and motivation leads to new motor skills or fine tuning
    • Nervous system maturation
    • Repeated “cycles” of actions
    • Nature, nurture, and environment create ever-changing system
reflexes

How Do Infants Develop Motor Skills?

Reflexes
  • Rooting: reaction when infant’s cheek is stroked or side of the mouth is touched
  • Sucking: automatic sucking when something is placed in newborn’s mouth
  • Moro reflex: startle response causes rapid closing of arms and legs
  • Grasping: when something touches palm
gross motor skills

How Do Infants Develop Motor Skills?

Gross Motor Skills
  • Large muscle activities
    • Development of posture
    • Learning to walk; locomotion, balance, and practice
    • Development in second year
      • Pull toys, climb stairs
      • Walk quickly, run stiffly
slide33

Stand with support

Sit without support

Degree of motor development

Support some weight with legs

Walks alone easily

Roll-over

Stands alone easily

Prone, chest up, arms for support

Walk using furniture for support

Pull self to stand

Prone, lift head

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

Age (months)

Milestones in Gross Motor Development

Fig. 6.15

cultural variations in guiding infants motor development

How Do Infants Develop Motor Skills?

Cultural Variations in Guiding Infants’ Motor Development
  • Infants reach motor milestones in different cultures based on activity opportunities
    • Variations not large
    • Milestones reached within normal age ranges
fine motor skills

How Do Infants Develop Motor Skills?

Fine Motor Skills
  • Reaching and grasping
    • Perceptual-motor coupling necessary
    • Initially move shoulders and elbows crudely; later move wrists and rotate hands
    • Coordinate thumb and forefinger
    • Experience affects reaching and grasping; becomes more refined during first 2 years
defining sensation and perception

How Can Infants’ Sensory and Perceptual Development Be Characterized?

Defining Sensation and Perception
  • Sensation: occurs when information contacts sensory receptors—eyes, ears, tongue, nostrils, and skin
  • Perception: interpretation of sensation
the ecological view

How Can Infants’ Sensory and Perceptual Development Be Characterized?

The Ecological View
  • People directly perceive information in the world around them
    • Perception allows human-environmental interaction and adaptation
    • Affordances: opportunities for interaction offered by objects; enhanced by previous experiences
studying infant perception

How Can Infants’ Sensory and Perceptual Development Be Characterized?

Studying Infant Perception
  • Infant cannot talk
    • Head movement indicates some vision
    • Visual preference method: Fantz measured length of gaze and patterns of preference in “looking chamber”
studying infant perception39

How Can Infants’ Sensory and Perceptual Development Be Characterized?

Studying Infant Perception
  • Habituation and Dishabituation
    • Habituation: decreased responsiveness to a stimulus after repeated presentations
    • Dishabituation: recovery of a habituated response after change in stimulation
  • Tracking: applied to vision and hearing
    • Equipment: high-amplitude sucking
visual perception

How Can Infants’ Sensory and Perceptual Development Be Characterized?

Visual Perception
  • Visual acuity and color
  • Perceiving patterns
  • Perceptual constancy—size, shape
  • Depth perception
  • Visual expectations
perceptual constancy

How Can Infants’ Sensory and Perceptual Development Be Characterized?

Perceptual Constancy
  • Size constancyRecognition that object remains the same even though the retinal image changes
  • Shape constancyRecognition that object remains the same even though its orientation changes
other senses

How Can Infants’ Sensory and Perceptual Development Be Characterized?

Other Senses
  • Hearing: begins in womb
  • Touch and Pain
  • Smell: present shortly after birth
  • Taste: may exist before birth
intermodal perception

How Can Infants’ Sensory and Perceptual Development Be Characterized?

Intermodal Perception
  • Ability to relate and integrate information from two or more sensory modalities
    • Exist in world of objects and events
    • Crude exploratory forms of intermodal perception exist in newborns
perceptual motor coupling

How Can Infants’ Sensory and Perceptual Development Be Characterized?

Perceptual-Motor Coupling
  • Perception and activity were traditionally considered separate.
  • Dynamic systems approach and ecological approach both suggest they are linked.
    • Dynamic systems: infants assemble motor behavior for perceiving and acting
    • Ecological: action can guide perception and perception can guide action
the end

Children

6

The End