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Challenges of Resource Efficiency

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  1. Challenges of Resource Efficiency Karolina Fras European Commission – DG Environment 21 October 2009

  2. Waste as a resource • Waste as a source of emissions • Waste as a tradable good

  3. 1. Waste as a resource • Leakage of resources outside EU (illegal shipments) • Untapped recovery potential + huge discrepancies between MS • Over 50% potentially recyclable waste disposed • Examples: • Paper (56% replaces primary material, but 31 to 66% of wasted recycling potential) • Iron, steel (75% replaces primary material, but 15 to 52% of wasted recycling potential) • Bio-waste (37% replaces primary material, but 31 to 98% of wasted recycling potential)

  4. Current state of waste recovery in the EU • 18 selected waste streams (85% of total waste in EU 27 in 2004) • 46% recovered - 54% disposed • Highest recovery rates: • Rubber & tyres • Iron & steel, copper, lead • Paper & cardboard • Lowest recovery rates: • Bio-waste • Plastics • Textiles

  5. Recycling, incineration and landfilling of municipal solid wastes in Europe Source: EEA, 2007.

  6. 2. Waste and emissions

  7. 3. Waste as a good • Limited supply of certain raw materials in EU • Dependence on imports • Market distortions and volatility

  8. Where are we now? • Despite its maturity (30 years of waste framework Directive) the Community waste legislation is not implemented sufficiently well by all Member States and economic players: • Thousands of illegal landfills • More than 1 on 4 shipments of waste found to be illegal • Frequent infringement cases • Still high risk of damage to health and safety

  9. Action? • Legislation • revised WFD with its EOW criteria, waste hierarchy, separate collection and recycling targets • daughter directives on waste streams • new legislation?... • Implementation • key issue, in all MS • WSR, Landfill and Waste Framework Directive as priorities • EU Waste Agency? • Improvedmarkets • quality of recyclates (info, labelling, standards) • transaction costs (exchange of info, facilitate search of business partners) • stable supply of secondary raw materials (improve waste collection and management schemes in MS) • other?...

  10. Revised Waste Framework Directive and resource efficiency

  11. Elements promoting resource efficiency • Waste management hierarchy • Life cycle thinking • Clarification – streamlining definitions (recovery, recycling, waste, end-of-waste, by-products, etc) • Obligation of separate collection • New recycling targets • Focus on prevention

  12. Setting priorities with the 5-step Waste Hierarchy PREVENTION • Order of priorities • Moving waste management up the hierarchy • Best environmental outcome • Life-cycle approach PREPARING FOR REUSE RECYCLING (COMPOSTING) RECOVERY DISPOSAL

  13. New recycling targets By 2020, the preparing for re-use and recycling of: • 50% by weight of at least paper, metal, plastic and glass from household and possibly other origins as far as these waste streams are similar to waste from households; • 70% by weight of non-hazardous construction & demolition waste;

  14. New dimension of prevention • New requirements concerning prevention: • MS to establish waste prevention programmes; • Programmes to set out prevention objectives, describe prevention measures, determine qualitative and quantitative benchmarks or targets for waste prevention; • Indicators to be developed by the Commission; • Commission to create a system for sharing information on best practice regarding waste prevention and develop guidelines for MS;

  15. Other waste legislation and resource efficiency

  16. SOME TARGETS IN EU WASTE LEGISLATION

  17. What needs to be separately collected? • WFD: • By 2015 separate collection shall be set up for at least the following: paper, metal, plastic and glass. • Bio-Waste • Waste Oils • Hazardous Waste • Other waste legislation: • Batteries and accumulators • WEEE • ELV • Packaging • PCBc / PCTs • Tyres (landfill ban as of 2003 for whole and 2006 for shredded)

  18. Conclusion and outlook • Waste is one aspect of a broader concept of resource efficiency • Waste Framework Directive and other Community legislation provide means to achieve resource efficient EU economy • Implementation is a key to success, efforts need to be stepped up to improve it

  19. European Commission karolina.fras@ec.europa.eu http://ec.europa.eu/environment/