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The Roman Empire

The Roman Empire

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The Roman Empire

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  1. The Roman Empire

  2. Geography of Italy not broken up into small valleys like Greece the Apennine Mts, running like a backbone down Italy, are not as rugged as those in Greece Italy has broad, fertile plains which supported a growing population

  3. Farmland in Tuscany, Italy

  4. Vineyard province of Chianti, Italy

  5. Early Roman Civilization Started in 7 villages on 7 hills around the Tiber River Etruscans – lived in the north, gave Romans the knowledge of the alphabet and the arch, other engineering techniques, draining marshy lands along the Tiber

  6. Government 509 B.C. Romans drove out the Etruscan ruler Officially founded the Roman state Set up a government with officials chosen by the people (REPUBLIC). They did this to keep any individual from gaining too much power.

  7. 300 members of the ruling class (PATRICIANS) made up the senate. They served for life and made the laws. Roman patrician with busts of his ancestors, 30 B.C.

  8. 2 CONSULS, elected each year by the senators to supervise the business of government and command the armies. Could only serve one term and had to consult with the senate. In event of war, the senate might choose a DICTATOR, who would be granted power to rule for the length of 6 months.

  9. The rest of the population, the commoners, were called PLEBEIANS. They got the Roman laws inscribed onto 12 tablets and set up in the Forum Plebeians elected repre-sentatives to protect their interests, TRIBUNES. The tribunes could block, or veto, the laws they felt would be harmful.

  10. Did you know? * Our Constitution is based on the Roman ideas of a republic, senate, veto, and checks and balances.

  11. Society The family was the basic unit of Roman society. Father had absolute power Women played a larger role than in Greek society. Girls and boys were both taught to read and write, especially rhetoric for boys who wanted to be statesmen.

  12. Religion Gods and Goddesses resembled the Greeks, just different names Neptune, god of the sea (Poseidon) Jupiter, father of the gods (Zeus)

  13. Expansion The Romans had powerful armies which allowed them to conquer all of Italy. Basic military unit (LEGION) of 5,000 men. Romans generally treated conquered peoples fairly, letting them keep their customs as long as they acknowledged Rome’s leadership and paid taxes, even giving some the right of Roman citizenship. Rome built a network of roads guarded by soldiers that helped unite the empire.

  14. Section 2 From Republic to Empire

  15. Carthage A Phoenician city-state on the northern coast of Africa. Its empire came into conflict with Rome as both powers expanded

  16. 3 wars with Carthage PUNIC WARS 1st Punic War – Rome defeated Carthage and won Sicily, Corsica, and Sardinia 2nd Punic War – Carthaginians seek revenge, Hannibal leads his war elephants through the Alps, surprising the Romans from the north…they expected an attack from the south. For 15 years Hannibal won battle after battle. But because Hannibal couldn’t capture Rome, in the end he was defeated and gave up all lands except those in Africa. 3rd Punic War – Rome completely destroyed Carthage and killed any survivors of the previous wars. Carthage was sown with salt so nothing would grow there again.

  17. Romans committed to a policy of IMPERIALISM, establishing control over foreign lands and peoples. Conquest brought incredible riches to Rome.

  18. How did wealth affect Rome? Farmers fell into debt, sold farms, moved to cities Cheap slave labor Population in cities grows Angry mobs, corruption, greed, self-interest

  19. Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus Among the first to attempt reform, tried to get the state to distribute land to poor farmers and use public funds to feed the poor. The senate got angry and got them killed with thousands of their followers.

  20. Rome plunges into a period of CIVIL WAR ? Who should hold the power?

  21. First Triumverate

  22. Crossing the Rubicon“The die is cast…”

  23. Julius Caesar Brilliant commander who conquered as far west as Gaul (France) Defied Pompey upon returning and forced the senate to make him dictator 4 years of reform: public works, gave land to the poor, introduced the Julian calendar, based on Egyptian astronomy Assassinated by the senate

  24. A bust of Julius Caesar, circa 25 B.C. It is believed to be an accurate likeness of Caesar—in fact, the most accurate likeness of all portrait busts of Caesar that have survived.

  25. Octavian -1st Emperor Caesar’s nephew was called Augustus Caesar, placed in power by the senate Republic dies, Empire born Good ruler, stable government, civil service, census, postal service, new coins, roads, etc.

  26. Pax Romana 200 years of peace Began with Octavian, ended with Marcus Aurelius Brought peace, order, unity, and prosperity to the empire, from the Euphrates to Britain Easy movement of people, ideas, religion, and culture on network of roads

  27. Bread and Circuses Circus Maximus, Rome’s largest race course Colosseum Chariot races, gladiator fights, even miniature naval battles

  28. Colosseum, ancient Rome’s largest stadium, held 50,000 people

  29. Circus Maximus

  30. Appian Way

  31. Roman aqueduct

  32. Roman mosaic

  33. Roman culture Borrowed heavily from the Greeks Art emphasized grandeur more than elegance Sculpture was more idealistic and symbolic Superb engineering and architectural skills Strong commitment to justice and principal of law

  34. Roman law “Let justice be done though the heavens fall.” Two systems of law Civil law – applied to Roman citizens Law of nations – applied to all people under Roman rule, citizens and non-citizens Accused person innocent until proven guilty