A New English Course. Student’s Book 5 Produced by Du Juan. Unit One Hit the Nail on the Head Alan Warner. Hit the Nail on the Head. Meaning: say or do exactly the right thing Example:
Student’s Book 5
Produced by Du Juan
Significance of finding the right words
Para. 4 - 7
Various aspects concerning word choice
Para. 4 - 10
Advice for EFL students
A man poor at language
A man clumsy with a hammer
A man good at language
A skilful carpenter
Read Page 7 with the following questions in mind:
-- Albert Einstein explains the Theory of Relativity
Good command of language
A fairly wide vocabulary
Think hard & observe accurately
Mastery over the material we are dealing with
a French expression;
a prevailing English proverb
“le mot juste” to Gustava Flaubert.
Find out what’s about Gustave Flaubert and his masterpiece Madame Bovery?
emotive or evaluative
2. pressure, compulsion
3. die, pass away; come to an end
4. Poverty-stricken, penniless
By Geoffrey Lean
the Mediterranean is the most polluted sea in the world (Para. 1)
Efforts being made to solve the problem
Introduction: The essence of Einstein
Body: main characteristic features
as a man and as a scientist
Para. 2 - 19
awe n. (l.13) -- the feeling of respect and amazement when one is faced with something wonderful, frightening, or completely unknown. 畏惧，敬畏。Examples:
Spouses: 1. Mileva, 6 January 1903-14, February 1919;
2. Elsa, m. 1923
Children:Lieserl Einstein, 1902; Hans Albert Einstein 14 May 1904; Eduard Einstein, 28 July 1910
Einstein’s first wife: Mileva
Einstein’s second wife: Elsa
a plausible explanation/excuse2) (disapproving) describes someone who appears to be honest and truthful, even if they are not:a plausible salesman
provided (that): (l.85) conjunction (also providing (that)): if, or only if:He's welcome to come along, provided that he behaves himself.
a letter to President Roosevelt and
sad for the destructive effect of atomic bomb
ineffable sadness (l.109): sadness that is too intense to be described
Anecdote: joined the children on Christmas Eve
A controlling idea is a word or a group of words that state the central idea of a paragraph, specifying what the paragraph is about. A controlling idea is often contained in the topic sentence of a paragraph.
Every year 100 million holiday-makers are drawn to the Mediterranean. With one-third of the world’s tourist trade, it is the most popular of all the holiday destinations; it is also the most polluted.
Some English words have a common root but are used in very different senses. Consider human and humane, for example. Their origin is the same and their meanings are related, but their usage is distinct. A human action is not the same thing as a humane action. We cannot speak of a Declaration of Humane Rights. …
It was this very Mozartean simplicity that most characterized Einstein’s methods. His 1905 theory of relativity, for example, was built on just two simple assumptions. One is the so-called principle of relativity, which means, roughly speaking, that we cannot tell whether we are at rest or moving smoothly. The other assumption is that the speed of light is the same no matter what the speed of the object that produces it. …
Please read the passage “Controlling Idea” on page 42 (Student’s book), and then do the exercise on page31 (Workbook)
Perennial (l.10): lasting through the whole year; lasting forever or for a long time 持久的， 长久的
E.g.: the perennial snow fields 终年积雪的原野
the perennial blue jeans 四季都穿的牛仔裤
a perennial invalid 长期病人
the perennial problems of isolation in old age 始终未能解决的老年人孤独问题
Journalists travel off the beaten track to give news a different perspective.
off the beaten track / path (l.11): not well-known; not often visited 去的人不多的，鲜有人涉足的；不出名的; 离开常规；不落俗套
beaten: (of a path, track, etc.) that is given shape by the feet of those who pass along it (路) 被踏平的, 走出来的, 人们常走的. E.g.:
We followed a well-beaten path through the forest. 我们沿着人们常走的小路穿过了森林。
go off the beaten track 打破常规
turnpike (l.12):(Am. E) also pike, turnpike road; a special road for the use of fast-traveling vehicles, especially such a road which one has to pay to use高速公路
-- towns like the movie sets in the thirties
-- company houses in rows
-- rutted roads
-- black and dirty
-- unemployed men in the bar
-- women working in a runaway sweatshop
When the traveler comes to the Appalachians, he will see the beauty of nature, and the run-down houses remind him of the “primitive man.” He does not know that the people living in the area are actually undereducated, underprivileged; in other words, they are very poor. So outward beauty of nature and false beliefs in the “primitive man” are misleading -- they simply cover up the truth -- the existence of poverty.
Because the middle class is the largest class in the U.S. It can represent most Americans. If the poor is invisible by the middle class, we can say the poor is invisible by most Americans.
The middle class:
Broadly speaking, the middle class is the social group between the upper or the wealthy and working classes, including professional and business workers and their families. The middle class is sometimes divided into lower middle and upper middle classes --- a division based on occupational and educational differences.
Since World War II, the middle class has been the largest class in the United States, where the middle class participate more in political and voluntary organizations than do the subordinate classes, that is, the lowest paid wage earners and the jobless poor. The middle class in the U.S. also has a higher rate of religious participation than any other class.
Slum (l.33) -- a thickly populated, squalid part of a city inhabited by the poorest people. In many cities in the U.S., particularly in the East and the Middle West, slums developed where unemployment led to great suffering and over-crowdedness; moreover, pauperism and crime are widespread.
Ghetto (l.35) -- In former times, in most European countries, a section of a city inhabited by Jews. In the U.S. today, a thickly populated slum area in a city inhabited predominantly by a minority group.
In the U.S., ghetto is a term used to describe segregated residential areas in the northern U.S. They are typically overcrowded, and have poor housing and high unemployment. They are largely a result of segregation.
the poor still live in the miserable housing in the central area of a city while the affluent middle class have moved from cities to the suburbs, so there is little chance for them to meet each other.
The cause of this new segregation of the poor from the affluent is: city transformation:
the poor still live in the miserable housing in the central area of a city while the affluent middle class have moved out to the suburbs, so there is little chance for them to meet each other.
“Well-meaning ignorance” refers to the lack of awareness of the existence of poverty on the part of the middle class because of their optimistic ideas about urban renewal(城市出新).
The middle class hear much about urban renewal, and when they see a slum torn down and modern buildings stand in its place, they feel gratified, thinking that the poor are being taken care of, not knowing the truth that more and more poor people are being squeezed into existing slums.
--- the groups of people at 65 years of age or better and those under 18
--- the aged poor: sick, can’t move, live in loneliness, stay in the neighborhood
--- the young poor: stay close to their neighborhood, not disturb the middle class and remain unnoticed except when they commit gang killing
no face: no unions, organizations, political parties, or lobbies; atomized
no voice: unable to speak for themselves, no legislative program
They are unable to speak for themselves because they have no face, no voice.
No politicians care about them because their slums are no longer the centers of powerful political organizations, only those unions without any great political power articulate their needs.
The Plug-in Drug:
TV and the American Family (Part I)
(1936, Prague, Czechoslovakia )Marie Winn, a journalist, author and birdwatcher, is known for her books and articles on the birds of Central Park, for her Wall Street Journal ornithology (scientific study of birds) column, for her critical coverage of television. She is the author of The playground Book, The Sick Book, The Baby Reader, and other books for parents and children.About the author
In 2002, she added new material to update the study as The Plug-In Drug: Television, Computers, and Family Life, published on the 25th anniversary of the original book.
A. Impact on children:
A drastic change in their life and personality; the process
that transforms children into people being hindered
B. Impact on family and family life:
Ever-loosening family ties
deep-seated differences of opinion根深蒂固的观点差异;
deeply ingrained habits of a lifetime终生的习惯;
a deeply planted need根深蒂固的贫困
He felt much afflicted at (by) the sad news.
A nightmare afflicts me from time to time. 恶梦不时折磨着我。
Unemployment afflicts 12 million workers in that country.
Question: Why does Winn accuse the early observers of myopia?
The early observers saw only the favorable effects of TV and none of them was sufficiently far-sighted to predict the negative effects of TV in the future. That is why they are accused of myopia, i.e.,
TV helps to keep all the family members in the house in a physical sense. But they are not really doing things together. Instead, they watch their own favorite programs with little interaction between them. In this sense the TV undermines the relationships between family members.
Q1: What is the behavior that TV screen produces?
Q2: What is the behavior that TV screen prevents?
Q: Which is more dangerous, the behavior TV produces or the behavior it prevents? Why?
Watching TV is itself dangerous, but what is more dangerous is that it prevents the talks, the games, the family festivities and arguments. Children can learn a lot from all these activities, and they form their character to some extent in the process of these activities.
If family members always mind their individual business without any time to do something together so as to have some shared experiences, the family is, then, anything other than / nothing but a care-taking institution instead of a warm place full of love, laughter and fun.
In paras.2-4, three quotations from early writers and commentators to show the general view in favor of TV as a new invention without the slightest foresight as to its possible negative effect.
Arising concern over too much TV viewing
In para7, a quotation of the authors of an early and influential study of TV’s effects on children illustrates a popularly accepted view which helped to soothe the worrying parents who began to feel about the negative effects TV might have on children.
Criticism of TV’s negative effects on family lifeand children’s growth
Quotation in para 10 to state the view that TV had negatively affected family life and the transformation of children into adults.
More quotations in para 12, 13 to criticize how TV dominates family life and diminishes interaction between parents and children.
Appeal for a better family life
Quoting from Times (Para. 17) to stress the importanceof parent-children communication
Group discussion and presentation in class:
TV displaces active types of recreation
It decreases time spent playing with peers. A child has less time for self-directed daydreaming and thinking. It takes away time for participating in sports, music, art, or other activities that require practice to achieve competence.
TV interferes with conversation and discussion time.
It reduces social interactions with family and friends.
TV discourages reading.
Reading requires much more thinking than television. Reading improves a youngster's vocabulary. A decrease in reading scores may be related to too much time in front of the TV.
Television's Positive Effects on Society Nichole VanSickle
According to Marie Winn and her essay “The Plug-In Drug,” television has various negative effects on our society today. In her essay Winn explores the ways in which television has harmfully caused disruptions with the quality of family life, rituals, and values. She recognizes there is a problem with oursociety and the way in which it is consistently influenced by television. I am able to agree with Winn on this point, but I do not feel that the totality of the influence is negative. Television today has a lot of positive effects and influences on our society and our American culture. Television gives us helpful information, various forms of education, and entertainment which are all a part of the positive effects that television has on our society.
The television has other purposes besides convenience. It is a great wayof educating the people throughout society with the important issues that affectour everyday lives. Be it social, political, economical, or medical, there isalways something new to be told, and the television is the quickest way to getit out to the people. Not only is the television fast, but it is also very accurate and in depth as well. The television takes the time to do the research that most
Along with informational and educational purposes, television serves asan entertainer as well. When television was first developed, entertainment wasnot one of its main purposes. As time went on people began to sit and watch thetelevision for that reason. Soon after came the development of sitcoms, andspecial programs which served as entertainment purposes. Throughout the years,entertainment on TV has become much more popular among Americans. Thetelevision has become an important part of our entertainment today. Not only isit more convenient than going to movies, plays, concerts, or sporting events butit is also a lot cheaper. With modern day television people do not have to leave their houses, and get dressed up to drive to see what they could be watching on their own TV sets at home. This is why the television companies
Throughout the years, the American people have come to rely on thetelevision and all it has to offer. The television with its multi-purposes haspositively affected our society through its means of information, education, andentertainment. We as Americans have become a part of a society which is greatly influenced by the television. Although, this influence has been proven toaffect the quality of family life, as Winn mentions in “The Plug-In Drug.” Thepositive effects of television on our society as a whole, and the knowledge itprovides is far greater than this quality of life that she mentions. I mustadmit that there are both positive and negative aspects that come out of ourtelevisions today, but I feel that the positive effects definitely out weigh thenegatives when it comes to the importance of information, education, andentertainment for our society.