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New Horizon English Course

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  1. New Horizon English Course Section AWhy Do Boys and Girls Learn Differently?

  2. CONTENTS Warming Up Reading Through Exercises Text A Main Idea & Structure Words & Expressions

  3. Warming up Activity I Spot Dictation Activity II Watch and Discuss

  4. Spot Dictation Directions: The following paragraph is taken from Text A. Listen carefully and fill in the blanks without referring to the original text. A team of ___________ discovered that there are strong __________ between how boys and girls are ________: while daughters in their study were often kept close to their parents, sons were ___________ to move _____________ and to develop____________. researchers differences raised on their own encouraged independence

  5. Watch & Discuss Watch the video and discuss the following topics. 1. What do you think of “Boys will be boys”? What does it imply? 2. What is the woman’s traditional status? Are there any changes in modern society?

  6. 1. What do you think of “Boys will be boys”? What does it imply? “Boys will be boys, and girls will be girls” is a deeply rooted conviction held by people in ancient China. In the old days, women are supposed to do things women must do, like doing the laundry and cooking, caring for the children and taking care of their husband, spinning and weaving, etc. Lucky as Mu Lan who was good at many things, such as fighting, running, shooting, riding, and even reading and writing, which are only supposed to what boys can do, still her place is “in the home”. Mu Lan is sixteen now and “old enough to marry a good husband” according to her mother.

  7. 2. What is the woman’s traditional status? Are there any changes in modern society? It is traditionally believed that a woman’s place is in the home. There are many tasks for a woman to do, such as caring for the children, do cooking, cleaning, mending and sewing, and even looking after her husband. In modern society, however, it is possible for a woman to go out of the home. Families today tend to be small with only one child. Thus a woman’s whole period of child-care may occur within at most five years. As for housework, washing machines can wash a large quantity of clothes in a few minutes. Refrigerators have made it possible to store food for long periods. The wife never has to do sewing and mending since good ready-made clothes are cheap and plentiful.

  8. Reading Through

  9. Text A Why Do Girls and Boys Learn Differently? Do you believe that only boys do well in science? Does it seem to you that girls have better vocabularies than boys? If your answers are “yes”, you may be right, according to an article in Current Science. While it is important to read things with an open mind, here are some of the article’s findings. On average, males score higher on tests that measure mathematical reasoning, mechanical ability, and problem-solving skills. Females, on the other hand, do better on tests measuring vocabulary, spelling, and memory. Chinese Text A Para. 1-2

  10. Usually, too, baby girls talk at an earlier age than boys do. Scientists think there is a physical reason for this. They believe that nerves in the left side of the brain develop faster in girls than in boys. It is this side of the brain that strongly influences a person’s ability to use words, to spell, and to remember. According to the article, by the time they start school, little girls have an advantage that boys do not have: girls are physically more ready to remember facts, to spell, and to read. These, of course, are skills that are very important as children first begin school. Chinese Text A Para. 3-4

  11. What, then, is happening with boys during their years before starting school? Some people say that society is teaching them to be more forceful than girls. A forceful person is said to be unafraid of questioning others, and to be an independent thinker. What produces such force in little boys? It has long been assumed that it is the result of chemistry in the male body. Scientists today, however, believe that there are other, outside, factors too. They say such force is learned from parents. Chinese Text A Para. 5-6

  12. A team of researchers discovered that there are strong differences between how boys and girls are raised: while daughters in their study were often kept close to their parents, sons were encouraged to move on their own and to develop independence. As a result, it is easy to understand why little girls often perform school tasks better than boys, especially if the task requires sitting still, obeying orders, and accepting the teacher’s ideas. A girl may do very well in school, while a boy the same age may bring home lower marks. Why, then, do so few girls become great scientists? Chinese Text A Para. 7-8

  13. While boys are taught in society to be more forceful, and to solve problems themselves, girls, on the other hand, are not encouraged to be this way. Girls, therefore, are often limited to getting high marks in school for remembering what the teacher has told them, instead of being allowed to question without fear like boys. In today’s world, most people believe that this situation is wrong, and that there is a solution: if men and women were both encouraged to learn and to solve problems in the same ways, more room would be available in society for new ideas from everyone. Chinese Text A Para. 9-10

  14. 1 While it is important to read things with an open mind, here are some of the article’sfindings. (Para. 1) Meaning: While it is important for us to read things with a mind that is ready for new ideas and opinions, let us have a look at some of the findings reported in the article. Meaning of the Sentences

  15. 2 On average, males score higher on tests that measure mathematical reasoning, mechanical ability, and problem-solving skills. (Para. 2) Meaning of the Sentences Meaning: Generally speaking, males get higher marks on tests that measure mathematical reasoning, mechanical ability, and problem-solving skills.

  16. 3 It is this side of the brain that strongly influences a person’s ability to use words, tospell, and to remember. (Para. 3) Meaning: What strongly influences a person’s ability to use words, to spell, and to remember things is this side of the brain. Meaning of the Sentences

  17. 4 Some people say that society is teaching them to be more forceful than girls. (Para. 5) Meaning: In some people’s opinion, society is teaching boys to be stronger and more powerful than girls. Meaning of the Sentences

  18. 5 A forceful person is said to be unafraid of questioning others, and to be anindependent thinker. (Para. 5) Meaning: People say a forceful person is not afraid of questioning others and has his/her own ideas or way of thinking. unafraid=not afraid Note that the word is formed with the prefix (前缀) “un-” which has a negative meaning. More examples: unknown不为人知的unpleasant不愉快的unrest不安的untie解开unmarried 未婚的unnatural 不自然的 Meaning of the Sentences

  19. 6 A girl may do very well in school, while a boy the same age may bring home lowermarks. (Para. 8) Meaning: It is possible that a girl gets good marks in school, while a boy of the same age may come home with lower marks. aboy the same age=a boy who is as old as the girl Meaning of the Sentences

  20. 7 … if men and women were both encouraged to learn and to solve problems inthe same ways, more room would be available in society for new ideas from everyone.(Para. 10) Meaning:…if women are encouraged to learn and to solve problems in the same way as men are, there would be greater possibility for everyone in society to come up with new ideas. more room would be available in society for new ideas from everyone=more room for new ideas from everyone would be available Meaning of the Sentences

  21. Main Idea There are stereotyped ideas about gender differences. This section deals with the problem by comparing the ways of learning between boys and girls and exploring the factors that cause the differences. In the first paragraph, the writer raises the problem: boys do well in science while girls do well in vocabulary. In order to support this viewpoint, three findings are cited in the next three paragraphs. From Paragraphs 5 to 9, an analysis about the forcefulness of boys and the obedience of girls in their studies is made. In response to the introductory paragraph, the author offered a “solution” to the problem of gender difference in the last paragraph. MainIdea & Structure

  22. Part I: Para. 1 Part II: Para. 2-9 Part III: Para. 10 Main Idea: The two rhetorical questions introduce to us the problem: whether there are gender differences between boys and girls or not. Main Idea: Many views are displayed to prove that boys and girls do learn differently. The forcefulness of boys and the obedience of girls are found even before their school years. Main Idea:The gender differences are frowned upon by some people. And the solution to the problem is to encourage boys and girls to solve the problems in the same ways. Structure

  23. Words & Expressions New Words finding vocabulary mechanical nerve physical mathematical forceful independent assume perform obey solution

  24. Words & Expressions Expressions do well in/do badlyin on (the/an) average on the one hand… and on the other (hand) by the time (all) on one’s own be limited to

  25. Words & Expressions finding: n. [C] (often plural) something learnt as the result of an official inquiry(调查、研究的)结果 e.g. One of their study’s findings shows that girls and boys communicate in different ways. 他们的研究结果之一表明女孩与男孩的交际方式不一样。 New words

  26. Words & Expressions vocabulary: n. 【1】[C; U] words known, learnt, used, etc. (学会或使用的)词汇(量) e.g. enlarge one’s vocabulary扩充词汇量 【2】[C] a list of words usually in alphabetical order and with explanations of their meanings, less complete than a dictionary 词(汇)表 e.g. You may look up this new word in the vocabulary of the textbook. 你可以在课本的词汇表中查找这个单词。 New Words

  27. Words & Expressions mechanical: adj. 【1】connected with machines and engines e.g. The breakdown was due to a mechanical failure. 抛锚是机械故障造成的。 【2】(disapproving) (of people’s behavior and actions) done without thinking, like a machine e.g. My work has become mechanical—I could do it in my sleep. 我的工作开始变得机械呆板——我睡着了都能做。 New Words

  28. Words & Expressions physical: adj. connected with a person’s body rather than their mind 身体的,肉体的 e.g. The ordeal has affected both her mental and physical health. 痛苦的经历损害了她的身心健康。 physical(n)=physical examination体检 New Words

  29. Words & Expressions mathematical: adj. of or relating to mathematics数学的 e.g. mathematical calculations数学计算 a mathematical formula数学公式 e.g. He’s some kind of mathematical genius. 他有些数学天赋。 New Words

  30. Words & Expressions nerve: n. 【1】[C] any of the threadlike parts of the body that form a system to carry feelings andmessages to and from the brain神经【2】[U] courage, determination and self-control勇气;意志力 e.g. Caffeine is a substance that stimulates the nerves of the body. 咖啡因是种能刺激身体神经的物质。 e.g. He had the nerve to point out the mistake that his teacher had made in explaining thetext.他有勇气指出老师在解释课文时犯的一个错误。 New Words

  31. Words & Expressions forceful: adj. (of a person, words, ideas, etc.) strong, powerful 坚强的;有说服力的 e.g. He has proved himself to be a forceful leader in dealing with the disaster. 在对这场灾难的处理中,他证明了自己是一位有魄力的领导人。 New Words

  32. Words & Expressions independent: adj. not depending on the help, advice, or opinions of others; self-governing 不受他人影响的;有独立见解的;自主的 e.g. India became independent (of Britain) in 1947. 印度于1947 年(脱离英国)获得独立。 n. Independence New Words

  33. Words & Expressions assume: vt. 【1】 believe something to be true without actually having proof that it is; suppose 假定;假设 e.g. Most people assume that actions speak louder than words. 大部分人认为行动胜于空谈(行动比言语更重要)。 【2】take or claim for oneself; begin to have or use 承担;担任 e.g. You will assume your new duties tomorrow. 明天你就要承担新任务。 New Words

  34. Words & Expressions perform: vt. 【1】 do; carry out (a piece of work, duty, ceremony, etc.), especially according to a usual orestablished method 履行;实行;完成 e.g. The teacher praised him as he performed his school task so well.由于在学校表现很好,老师表扬了他。 【2】give, act, or show (a play, a part in a play, a piece of music, tricks, etc.), especially in the presence of the public 表演;演戏;演奏 e.g. What play will be performed tonight? 今晚上演哪个剧目? New Words

  35. Words & Expressions obey:v. do what someone in a position of authority tells you to do, or to do what a law or rule says you must do 服从(权威); 遵守(指令、法律等) e.g.Soldiers must obey orders. 军人必须服从命令。 We should obey the law. 我们应当遵守法律 。 New Words

  36. Words & Expressions solution: n. [C] an answer to a difficulty or problem 解决;解答;解决方法 e.g. It’s difficult to find a solution to this problem. 要找到这个问题的解决办法很难。 e.g. 某个问题的解决方法 the solution to a problem New Words

  37. Words & Expressions do well/badly in在······方面干得很好/糟糕 1. 我希望你将来会干得好些。 I hope you’ll do better in the future. 2. 每年这个时候,公司生意总是不景气。 The company always does badly at this time of year. e.g. Do you believe that only boys do well in science? 你认为只有男孩在理科方面学得好吗? Expressions

  38. Words & Expressions on average一般而言,平均 e.g. On average, males score higher on such tests. 一般而言,男性在这样的考试中得分较高。 1.日本人的平均年龄比欧洲人要高得多。 Japanese on average live much longer than the Europeans. 2.人们平均每十年换一个职业, 而不是一辈子干一种工作。 People are changing careers on average every ten years now instead of staying in a job for life. Expressions

  39. Words & Expressions on (the) one hand, …, and on the other (hand) 一方面······,另一方面 一方面,她不得不照顾生病的儿子;另一方面,她努力成为优秀的老师。 On the one hand, she had to look after her sick son; on the other, she tried her best to be a good teacher. e.g. Females, on the other hand, do better on tests measuring vocabulary, spelling, and memory. 而在词汇、拼写和记忆方面的测试中,女性则表现较好。 Expressions

  40. Words & Expressions by the time到······的时候;在······之前 e.g.By the time they start school, little girls have an advantage that boys do not have. 到开始上学的时候,小女孩就具备了小男孩所没有的优势。 1. 当她来到时,已经下课了。 By the time she came, the class was over. 2. 当他到达那里时,她已经走了。 By the time he got there, she had already left. Expressions

  41. Words & Expressions (all) on one’s own单独地;独自地 e.g. While daughters in their study were often kept close to their parents, sons were encouraged to move on their own and to develop independence. 当女儿学习时,父母常常伴随其左右,而对儿子则鼓励其自由活动,培养其自主能力。 1. 她总是独立完成作业 She always finishes her homework on her own. 2. 我无法一个人把车修好。 I was unable to repair the car all on my own. Expressions

  42. Words & Expressions be limited to + n./doing限于······ e.g. Girls, therefore, are often limited to getting high marks at school for remembering what the teacher has told them. 所以,女孩常常是因为记住了老师传授的东西而取得高分。 1. 每位的演讲时间都应该限定在十分钟内。 Every speech should be limited to 10 minutes. 2. 她的旅行仅限于法国的几处名胜。 Her travel has been limited to a few French resorts. Expressions

  43. Using the Right Word Exercises • WorkingwithExpressions • Focusing on Sentence Structure • Translating • Using Topic-related Terms • Basic Writing Skills

  44. Complete each of the following sentences by deciding on the most appropriate word from the 4 choices marked A, B, C and D. • Students should be encouraged to be _____ thinkers. A. independent B. independence C. advantage D. average 2. Charlie thinks money will _____ all his problems. A. perform B. solve C. score D. force A B Using the Right Word

  45. C 3. The doctor was _____ an operation to save the patient’s life. A. acting B. limiting C. performing D. assuming 4. New medicines are _____ remarkable results in the treatment of cancer. A. finding B. requiring C. solving D. producing 5. You should read more books to enlarge your _______. A. vocabulary B. memory C. brain D. score D A Using the Right Word

  46. B 6. The good weather could be an important _____ in tomorrow’s game. A. fact B. factor C. force D. activity 7. This kind of plant _____ a lot of water at all times. A. assumes B. limits C. produces D. requires 8. Soldiers are expected to _____ orders. A. obey B. ask C. do D. fear D A Using the Right Word

  47. Fill in each of the blanks in the following sentences with a suitable preposition or adverb. 1. ______ the time Brian arrives at the airport, Tony has already been waiting there. 2. The Japanese, ________ average, live much longer than the Europeans. 3. They believe that nerves _______ the left side of the brain develop faster in girls than _______ boys. By on in in Working with Expressions

  48. on 4. The old lady has been living _____ her own for ten years now. 5. The boy has to finish his homework instead ______ going out. 6. All flights had to be cancelled ______ a result of the pilots’ strike. 7. My mother limited us _______ one cake each for dinner. 8. ________ the one hand, I want to sell the house, but ________ the other, I can’t bear the thought of moving. of as to On on Working with Expressions

  49. A. Rewrite the following sentences after the models, emphasizing the underlined part of a sentence with a cleft sentence(部分强调句). Model 1: This side of the brainstrongly influences a person’s ability to use words, to spell and to remember. Key: It isthisside of the brainthat/whichstrongly influences a person’s ability to use words, to spell and to remember. Focusing on Sentence Structure

  50. Model 2: She lost her keyon the way to the station. Key: It wason the way to the stationthatshe lost her key. . 1. I did not get your letteruntil yesterday. 2. She has boughttwo ticketsfor the 7:30 show. 3.Maryenjoys classical music. It wasnot until yesterdaythat Igot your letter. It istwo ticketsthatshe has bought for the 7:30 show. It isMarywho/thatenjoys classical music. Focusing on Sentence Structure