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Workshop 2 30 th June & 1 st July 2005, Certu. Italian experiences in earthquake risk reduction: mitigation tools V. Pessina 1 and E. Faccioli 2. With the collaboration of: L. Finazzi 2 , L. Frassine 2 , S. Lagomarsiono 3.

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slide1

Workshop 230th June & 1st July 2005, Certu

Italian experiences in earthquake risk reduction: mitigation tools

V. Pessina1 and E. Faccioli2

With the collaboration of:

L. Finazzi2, L. Frassine2, S. Lagomarsiono3

1 Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia 2 Department of Structural Engineering, 3 DISEG, Genoa University, Italy Sezione di Milano, Italy Politecnico di Milano, Italy

slide2

Naevsted

Cologne

Prague

Paris

Bologna

Marseille

Siena

GLOBAL SEISMIC HAZARD ASSESSMENT PROGRAM

slide3

CATANIA

Outline of presentation :

  • Distinctive features of Catania
  • Earthquake hazard assessment
  • Vulnerability assessment of current buildings
  • Seismic risk scenarios
  • Appropriation of seismic problems by the city representatives
slide4

Distribution ofpopulation density

1991 census data

Growth of the city population:

1946  250.000

1971  400.000

1991  331.503

Distribution of the prevailing building types

slide5

Scope and main tools

  • Knowledge transfer between seismic research community and local administrators
  • Providing useful risk indicators to local administrators for planning purposes and emergency action response
  • DESCRIPTION OF THE WORK
  • Choice of the most significant elements at risk
  • Generation of a damage scenario for M=7.2 maximum historical event
  • Damage assessment for residential buildings
  • Assessment of loss estimation (casualties and severely injured, homeless)
  • Proposal of a simplify method for debris assessment
  • Identification of safety routes
  • Hazardous fire zones identification
  • Assessment of potential seismic hazard for hospitals
slide6

Characteristic features analysed:

Residential buildings

Public buildings (schools)

Emergency areas

Traffic flow

Lifelines facilities (gas lifelines)

Choice of the test area

slide7

1693 - 1 - 11

Earthquake hazard assessment: deterministic approach

Level I scenario

M7.3 earthquake of January 11, 1693,

a destructive event

Historical intensity map

X-XI

ground shaking maps for amax (g)

slide8

Vulnerability Index

for specific building type

Regional Vulnerability factor

Behaviour Modifier

factor

Vulnerability assessment of current buildings

VI = VI* + DVR + DVm

MASONRY buildings

REINFORCED CONCRETE buildings

slide9

LSU survey (1998-2001)

r.c.

masonry

Structural types

(according to LSU)

Structural types

(visual survey)

Residential buildings: high level of incertenties on the data collection

slide10

Damage grade

0

1

2

3

4

5

VI index

0 - 0.25

0.25 -0.50

0.50 - 0.750.75 -1

Damage Scenario

Vulnerability Index

slide11

V (RISK-UE)

No damage

Slight

Moderate

Heavy

Very heavy

Collapse

Seismic risk scenarios: estimation of direct physical losses

Level I method

Vulnerability and damage maps for the 1693 event

Mean damage grade d is estimated for each census tract, as average damage for all building categories present in the tract.

slide12

No damage

Slight

Moderate

Heavy

Very heavy

Collapse

Seismic risk scenarios: estimation of direct physical losses

Map of probability of collapse

1693 event

Probability of collapse

slide13

40%+100%+70%

30%

3728 Homeless

0  50

50  150

150  300

300  500

500  1300

Casualties estimation

Test area

0 Casualties

Tot. Residents = 6548

Estimation of victims for the surveyed area of Catania

(about 70% of the total buildings)

123 Casualties

160877 Homeless

slide14

Primary school C.D Rapisardi

Structural type: Masonry

Age of building construction: 1919-1945

Number of stories: 4

Vulnerability Index: moderate-low

Number of pupils: 900

School

High school

University

Administrative office

Cinema

Court

Hospital

Emergency shelter area

Strategic buildings

slide15

Natural Gas network

Potable water network

Water network

Waste water network

Compressor station

Boreholes

Analysedarea:

PGV = 0.30 m/s on rockPGV = 0.40 m/s on soft soil

Soft soil

stiff soil

rock

R.R. Repair rate

Number of repairs vs.length of pipe

R.R. < 0.043 on rockR.R. = 0.050 – 0.060 on soft soil

Comparison of RR values for iron pipelines subjected to the same shaking level (35 cm/s) of others events:

Emergency area

The geological discontinuities represent critical situation for pipelines. 1D linear equivalent analysys show a possible increment of the expected maximum velocity (about 1.18 – 1.30)

Gas network risk assessment

slide16

The debris obstruction of the street depends on:

  • high bldgs damage
  • narrow street
  • bldgs elevation

Crucial node because of heavy traffic, narrow street and heavy damaging buildings

Masonry buildings

Damage grade

0

1

2

3

4

5

Damage grade

0

1

2

3

4

5

0  500

500  1000

1000  2000

2000  3000

3000  5000

The traffic flow

Cars/hour

slide17

filled volume = 30% building volume

H

obstruction

D

debris volume

r

obstruction

X

debris volume

H

obstruction

D

debris volume

Debris assessment: MASONRY buildings

hypothesis

F 45° friction degree of debris

Isolated building

Confined building

slide18

3 floors

2.5 m

3 floors

9.8 m

Damage grade

0

1

2

3

4

5

2 floors

2 floors

8 m

9.8 m

1.3 m

slide19

Hospital

Emergency area

School

Damage grade

0

1

2

3

4

5

Safety routes

slide20

Travel post earthquake: 234 seconds

Buildings with damage level “very heavy” or “collapse”

Vulnerability assessment of lifelines and essential facilities

Transportation accessibility assessment of roadways

RESULTS: Assuming that routes adjacent to buildings with “very heavy damage” or “collapse” are obstructed, the transportation accessibility results reduced to 60% in zone shown (for 1818 scenario earthquake)

APPLICATION:

Estimation of minimum distance (minimum travel time) between a school and a hospital

Travel before earthquake:124 seconds

slide21

- damage scenario

- critical zone for lifelines

Planning actions

  • - casualties and severely injured
  • safety routes
  • zone exposed to fire hazard

Emergency actions

- homeless

- debris volume assessment

Post earthquake actions

First conclusions

Important indicators of seismic risk level have been provided for:

slide22

Appropriation of seismic problems by the city representatives

  • Meetings with Catania representatives during the project:
  • July 2002: meeting with the Mayor and city administrators
  • September 2002: Risk-UE meeeting in Catania
  • February 2004: meeting with the Mayor and city administrators

The Mayor of Catania has special powers for handling traffic emergencies, which enable him to plan and operate interventions on the roadway system in order to improve the seismic safety of the city.

  • Decisions already taken to decrease the seismic risk in the future:
  • improvement of highway transportation system
  • construction of new hospitals and relocation of existing ones
  • improvement of critical structures for civil defence and
  • emergency management
slide23

3

1

2

4

5

6

8

9

7

Rapid visual screening of Catania hospitals for potential seismic hazards

  • RVSProcedure (Rapid Visual Screening): data collectionbased on visual observation of the building from outside, and if possible, from inside (FEMA 154 handbook).
  • The RVS procedure enables to classify the surveyed buildings into two categories:
  • buildings that may be seismically hazardous: S  2
  • buildings with acceptable seismic performance: S > 2

The final score S has been calculated for every building belonging to each hospital; the global evaluation of the condition of each hospital Saverage is defined as weighted average of final scores S

HospitalSaverage

1 Policlinico 2.5

2 Ascoli-Tomaselli 2.3

3 Cannizzaro 2.9

4 S.Luigi Currò 2.4

5 Garibaldi 2.9

6 Ferrarotto 2.4

7 Vittorio Emanuele 1.4

8 S.Bambino 2.6

9 S.Marta 2.1

Saverage

slide24

Improvement of highway transportation system

Infrastructures under improvement:

main road

Infrastructures under costruction:

main road

roundabout

exchange parking

slide25

New Garibaldi Hospital

rock

stiff

soft

Hospital

S.Marco Hospital

Civil Defence

Fire Brigades

Improvement of critical structures for civil defence and emergency management

  • Existing buildings:
  • 9 hospitals (medium-high vulnerability)
  • 1 Civil Defence centre
  • 1 Fire Brigade centre

Buildings under construction:

  • 2 hospitals: S.Marcoand New Garibaldi
  • 1 provincial centre ofCivil Defence
  • 2 Fire Brigade centres
slide26

Prefecture

Fire Brigades

Municipal Police

City emergency centre (receives calls)

Civil Defence centre

Operational room

  • Supporting actions:
  • Volunteer organisations
  • Materials, means and essential services
  • Damage and casualties survey
  • Handling traffic emergencies
  • Telecommunications
  • Assistance to citizens

Local Plan of Civil Defence:

structures for seismic emergency management

Issue of an alarm

First evaluation of emergency

Activation of rescue operation

slide34

http://gndt.ingv.it/Pubblicazioni/Pubblicazioni_home.htm

http://www.risk-ue.net/

http://adic.diseg.unige.it/gndt-liguria/index.html

Reference web sites: