chapter 3 minerals of the earth s crust l.
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Chapter 3:Minerals of the Earth’s Crust. Mineral -A naturally formed inorganic solid that has a definite crystalline structure. Rocks are composed of minerals. Contain one or more of 92 elements. Element -A pure substance that cannot be broken down into a simpler substance.

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chapter 3 minerals of the earth s crust

Chapter 3:Minerals of the Earth’s Crust

Mineral-A naturally formed inorganic solid that has a definite crystalline structure. Rocks are composed of minerals. Contain one or more of 92 elements.

Element-A pure substance that cannot be broken down into a simpler substance.

Native Element -A mineral that is composed of only one element.

Compound-A substance composed of two or more elements that have been chemically combined.

minerals are classified by their chemical composition
Minerals are classified by their chemical composition
  • Silicate Minerals -minerals composed of silicon, oxygen and other elements and make up 90% of the Earth’s crust.
  • Nonsilicate Minerals -minerals that do not contain silicon and oxygen.

a. Carbonates: contain carbon and oxygen.

b. Sulfides: contain one or more elements combined with sulphur.

c. Sulfates: contain sulphur and oxygen in the form of SO4.

d. Native Elements

e. Oxides: Contains elements combined with oxygen.

f. Halides: Compounds such as salt (NaCl) that are used in industry.

properties
Properties
  • Are characteristics that describe a mineral such as color, luster, streak, etc.

Color – The appearance of a mineral based upon the contained impurities.

Luster - The manner in which a mineral’s surface reflects light.

Streak – The color of the powdered mineral left behind when rubbed against an unglazed porcelain tile.

Cleavage – The tendency of a mineral to break along smooth, flat surfaces.

Fracture – The tendency of a mineral to break unevenly along curved or irregular surfaces.

properties cont
Properties (cont.)

Hardness – A mineral’s resistance to being scratched.

Density – The measure of the amount of matter in a given space; the ratio of the mass to the volume. D=M/V.

Special Properties: Characteristics that are particular to only a few types of minerals.

Fluorescence – Certain minerals will glow when viewed with an ultraviolet light.

Magnetism – Some minerals are natural magnets. Ex. : Magnetite a.k.a. loadstone.

Radioactivity – Some minerals can contain elements that give off radiation. Ex. : Radium, Uranium.

the formation of minerals
The Formation of Minerals
  • Evaporating Salt Water – as water evaporates, minerals such as halite and gypsum are left behind.
  • Surface & Groundwater – can carry dissolved minerals into bodies of water where they crystallize to form new minerals.
  • Heat & Pressure – can change the chemistry of the existing rocks to form metamorphic rocks.
  • Hot Water Solutions – occur when ground water sinks deeper to be heated by magma and react with minerals.
  • Pegmatites – teardrop shaped bodies with large crystals that form as magma moves upwards.
  • Plutons – magma that moves upwards then cools to form crystals.
mining the removal of rocks and minerals from the earth
Mining – The removal of rocks and minerals from the Earth.

1.) Ore – A naturally occurring mineral that is mined for profit.

2.) Surface Mining – Removing deposits that are close to the surface in open pits or quarries.

3.) Subsurface Mining – Removing minerals that are located very deep within the Earth.

a.) Reclamation – The process in which the surface land is returned to it’s original, pre-existing state after mining has been completed.

4.) Recycling – The reuse of mined products to reduce our mineral needs.

classes of minerals
Classes of Minerals
  • Metallic Minerals – Minerals that have shiny surfaces and are good conductors of heat and electricity.
  • Nonmetallic Minerals – Minerals that are nonmetals, dull and are electrical insulators.
  • Gemstones – A type on nonmetallic mineral that is highly valued for it’s beauty and rarity. The color of a gemstone is it’s most important and attractive characteristic.
  • Caret – A unit of mass for a gemstone.

1 caret= 200mg.