Chapter 3:Minerals of the Earth’s Crust. Mineral -A naturally formed inorganic solid that has a definite crystalline structure. Rocks are composed of minerals. Contain one or more of 92 elements. Element -A pure substance that cannot be broken down into a simpler substance.
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Mineral-A naturally formed inorganic solid that has a definite crystalline structure. Rocks are composed of minerals. Contain one or more of 92 elements.
Element-A pure substance that cannot be broken down into a simpler substance.
Native Element -A mineral that is composed of only one element.
Compound-A substance composed of two or more elements that have been chemically combined.
a. Carbonates: contain carbon and oxygen.
b. Sulfides: contain one or more elements combined with sulphur.
c. Sulfates: contain sulphur and oxygen in the form of SO4.
d. Native Elements
e. Oxides: Contains elements combined with oxygen.
f. Halides: Compounds such as salt (NaCl) that are used in industry.
Color – The appearance of a mineral based upon the contained impurities.
Luster - The manner in which a mineral’s surface reflects light.
Streak – The color of the powdered mineral left behind when rubbed against an unglazed porcelain tile.
Cleavage – The tendency of a mineral to break along smooth, flat surfaces.
Fracture – The tendency of a mineral to break unevenly along curved or irregular surfaces.
Hardness – A mineral’s resistance to being scratched.
Density – The measure of the amount of matter in a given space; the ratio of the mass to the volume. D=M/V.
Special Properties: Characteristics that are particular to only a few types of minerals.
Fluorescence – Certain minerals will glow when viewed with an ultraviolet light.
Magnetism – Some minerals are natural magnets. Ex. : Magnetite a.k.a. loadstone.
Radioactivity – Some minerals can contain elements that give off radiation. Ex. : Radium, Uranium.
1.) Ore – A naturally occurring mineral that is mined for profit.
2.) Surface Mining – Removing deposits that are close to the surface in open pits or quarries.
3.) Subsurface Mining – Removing minerals that are located very deep within the Earth.
a.) Reclamation – The process in which the surface land is returned to it’s original, pre-existing state after mining has been completed.
4.) Recycling – The reuse of mined products to reduce our mineral needs.
1 caret= 200mg.