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MINERALS - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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MINERALS
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  1. MINERALS

  2. MINERALS ARE MADE UP OF SINGLE ELEMENTS OR COMPOUNDS A SUBSTANCE THAT CANNOT BE BROKEN DOWN TO ANY SIMPLER SUBSTANCE ELEMENTS EIGHT MOST COMMON ELEMENTS IN THE EARTH’S CRUST: 1.) OXYGEN 46% 3-8.)THE REMAINING 25% IS COMPOSED OF Al, Fe, Ca, Na, K, Mg 2.) SILICON 29%

  3. A MINERAL IS: 1.) NATURALLY OCCURRING 2.) DEFINITE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION 3.) INORGANIC SOLID 4.) CRYSTALLINE STRUCTURE 5.) DEFINITE SET OF CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

  4. FAMILIES OF MINERALS Native Minerals ARE COMPOSED OF SINGLE ELEMENTS. Au (aurum) GOLD Ag (argentium) SILVER Cu (cuprum) COPPER S SULFUR C GRAPHITE OR DIAMOND

  5. MOST MINERALS ARE COMPOSED OF TWO OR MORE ELEMENTS HALITE (NaCl) QUARTZ (SiO2)

  6. SILICATES • OXYGEN AND SILICON COMBINE READILY WITH EACH OTHER AND WITH OTHER ELEMENTS TO FORM THIS FAMILY OF MINERALS • MOST COMMON FAMILY OF MINERALS AND MAKE UP OVER 90% OF ALL MINERALS • THIS IS BECAUSE OXYGEN AND SILICON ARE THE MOST COMMON ELEMENTS IN THE EARTH’S CRUST

  7. * ANY MINERAL WHICH IS A SILICATE MUST CONTAIN Si (SILICON) AND O (OXYGEN) IN THEIR CHEMICAL FORMULA NOW CIRCLE ALL OF THE MINERALS ON YOUR NOTESHEET WHICH ARE SILICATES ORTHOCLASE AUGITE QUARTZ OLIVINE BIOTITE

  8. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MINERALS ARE A REFLECTION OF THE INTERNAL ARRANGEMENT OF THEIR ATOMS

  9. COLOR LEAST USEFUL PROPERTY, CHANGE IN THE CHEMICAL FORMULA WILL VARY THE COLOR OF THE MINERAL. (QUARTZ) SiO2 ROSE QUARTZ CONTAINS TITANIUM OXIDE AND MANGANESE OXIDE TO MAKE A ROSE COLOR CRYSTAL QUARTZ

  10. LUSTER - THE WAY A MINERAL SHINES IN REFLECTED LIGHT. METALLIC- LOOKS LIKE METAL IN THE WAY THE MINERAL REFLECTS LIGHT (GALENA OR PYRITE)

  11. NON-METALLIC- DOES NOT LOOK LIKE POLISHED METAL, SO OTHER TERMS ARE USED  VITREOUS- SHINY, GLASSLIKE (QUARTZ) • PEARLY LOOKS LIKE PEARLS WHEN LIGHT IS REFLECTED OFF OF THE SURFACE (OPAL)

  12.  WAXY- DULL SHINE LIKE CANDLE WAX (SULFUR, OLIVINE)  EARTHY- NO SHINE AT ALL (BAUXITE)  ADAMANTINE- BRILLIANT GLOW, BEAM OF LIGHT AT A CERTAIN ANGLE (DIAMOND)

  13. STREAK THE COLOR OF A MINERALS POWDER HOW DO YOU FIND THE STREAK COLOR OF A MINERAL? RUB THE MINERAL AGAINST A STREAK PLATE AND OBSERVE THE POWDER’S COLOR

  14. BREAKAGE PATTERN CLEAVAGE- TENDENCY OF A MINERAL TO SEPARATE ALONG PLANES OF WEAKNESS  ONE PLANE OF WEAKNESS BASAL CLEAVAGE (MICA)  TWO PLANES OF CLEAVAGE AT 90* (ORTHOCLASE)

  15.  THREE PLANES OF WEAKNESS AT 90* = CUBIC (HALITE)  THREE PLANES NOT AT 90* = RHOMBOHEDRAL (CALCITE)

  16. FRACTURE- NO PLANES OF WEAKNESS SO THE MINERAL BREAKS ALONG IRREGULAR SURFACES • CONCHOIDAL- SURFACES ARE SOMEWHAT ROUNDED, SHELL-LIKE (QUARTZ)

  17. UNEVEN- ROUGH SURFACE, NO DISTINGUISHABLE PATTERN FIBROUS- JAGGED SURFACE LIKE FIBERS (WOLLASTONITE)

  18. Hardness RESISTANCE TO BE SCRATCHED; IS VERY USEFUL SINCE A MINERAL’S HARDNESS IS CONSTANT • SCALE TO MEASURE HARDNESS WAS DEVELOPED BY FRIEDRICH MOH IN 1812 • HARDNESS IS MEASURED ON A SCALE FROM 1 BEING THE LOWEST TO 10 BEING THE HIGHEST. • TO DETERMINE THE HARDNESS OF A MINERAL YOU MUST TRY TO SCRATCH THE MINERAL AGAINST A GLASS PLATE

  19. MINERAL NAMETYPICAL USES 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 TALC TALCUM POWDER, BABY POWDER GYPSUM BUILDING MATERIALS (SHEETROCK) FINGERNAIL IS A 2.5 CALCITE CEMENTS FLUORITE TOOTHPASTE APATITE FERTILIZER GLASS IS A 5.5 FELDSPAR FLOOR TILES QUARTZ WATCHES, ABRASIVES TOPAZ GEMSTONES (EMERALD) CORUNDUM GEMSTONES (RUBY & SAPHIRE) DIAMOND SAW BLADES, “AGIRL’S BEST FRIEND”

  20. MAGNETIC – THE ABILITY TO ATTRACT A MAGNET (MAGNETITE) • TASTE – HALITE Special Properties • EFFERVESCENCE – ADDING HCL TO A MINERAL CAUSES IT TO FIZZ

  21. ODOR – SOMETIMES THE POWDER OF A MINERAL HAS A CERTAIN ODOR (SULFUR SMELLS LIKE ROTTEN EGGS) • DOUBLE REFRACTION – SPLITS LIGHT RAYS (CALCITE) Special Properties

  22. FLUORESCENCE – THE ABILITY TO GLOW UNDER ULTRA VIOLET LIGHT (SPHALERITE) Special Properties • SPECIFIC GRAVITY (DENSITY) – SOME MINERALS HAVE ATOMS VERY TIGHTLY PACKED, AND FEEL HEAVIER BECAUSE THEY ARE MORE DENSE (GALENA)