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AFRICAN CULTURE. Unit 3. African Civilizations 1500 BC-AD 700. Africa spreads across the equator. It includes a broad range of Earth’s environments-from coastal plains to mountains. Some parts of Africa suffer from constant drought, while others receive over 200 inches of rain a year!
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AFRICAN CULTURE Unit 3
Africa spreads across the equator. It includes a broad range of Earth’s environments-from coastal plains to mountains. Some parts of Africa suffer from constant drought, while others receive over 200 inches of rain a year! Vegetation varies from sand dunes and rocky wastelands to dense green rain forests. Interaction with the African environment has created unique cultures and societies. Each group found ways to adapt to the land and the resources that it offers. Setting the Stage
Africa is the 2nd largest continent; it stretches 4600 miles from east to west and 5000 miles from north to south, it occupies 1/5 of Earth’s land surface. Each African environment offers its own challenges: Desert-Sahara and Kalahari are largely unsuitable for human life and hamper movement. Rain forest-partly uninhabitable because of the dense forests and the tsetse fly. Savanna-grassy plains where most people live; support abundant agricultural production Africa’s Geography
SEE MAP PAGE 125 WE WILL EXAMINE THIS MAP AND THE INTERACTIVE MAP TOGETHER. BE READY TO ANSWER QUESTIONS ABOUT THIS MAP.
Migration is a permanent move from one country or region to another. Migration is usually caused by push-pull factors-what pushes people out of one area or pulls them to another? Migration falls into 3 main categories: Environmental Economic Political Migration
Early Africans made some of the greatest migrations in history, settling throughout the continent and spreading their languages and culture. The Bantu-speaking peoples originally lived south of the Sahara and moved further south and east. The Bantu peoples were farmers, nomadic herders, iron workers, etc. Migration
Bantu Migrations: 1000 BCE To 500 CE
Ghana Empire [4c-11c] Gold “Money”, Ghana/Ivory Coast
Ghana developed in West Africa between the Niger and the Gambia Rivers. It was an important kingdom there from about AD 300 to about 1100. The rivers helped Ghana to grow rich because they were used to transport goods and develop trade. Ghana also collected taxes from traders who passed through the kingdom. The people called their nation Wagadu; we know it as Ghana --that was the word for war chief. http://www.nevadasurveyor.com/africa/web/pages/niger_river.htm
Ghana Ruler and Government Founders were the Soninke people around 800 A.D. Ruled by kings and officials – power would be divided into kings and village chiefs; power would go to king’s nephew; considered to be half-god Not the same as present day Ghana. Is actually present day Mali
Many trade routes crossed the savanna through the region farmed by the Soninke people. The Soninke called their leader Ghana, or war chief. By the 700s, Ghana was a kingdom, and its rulers were growing rich by taxing the goods that traders carried through their territory. The two most important trade items were gold and salt. By 800, Ghana had become an empire. The king of Ghana: Controlled trade by storing large amounts of gold and salt that only he had the power over. Commanded a large army Demanded taxes and gifts from chiefs of surrounding lands, and would allow them to live in peace if payments were made, And acted as a religious leader and the chief judge
Reasons for Rise Rich in gold The kings controlled the gold and salt trade across West Africa Large army Traded gold, salt , precious woods, and kola nuts. Gold came from a forest region between the Niger and Senegal Rivers. Salt came from the Sahara Desert. Muslim merchants brought their Muslim faith Rulers employed Muslim language, money, and business methods.
The kingdom of Ghana probably began when several clans of the Soninke people of west Africa came together under the leadership of a great king named Dinga Cisse. • Ghana had few natural resources except salt and gold. • They were also very good at making things from iron. • Ghanaian warriors used iron tipped spears to subdue their neighbors, who fought with weapons made of stone, bone, and wood. http://www.imf.org/external/np/exr/center/mm/eng/mm_rs_01.htm
Kingdom of Ghana Western Africa, located on the Senegal River Emerged in 500 A.D. 1st Great Traders of West Africa Gold and Salt trade Farming communities throughout nation Strong rulers, no laws to govern with Rulers acted as religious leader, judge, and military commander as well Well trained army to protect Kingdom Vast wealth- resources of gold, silver, and iron ore
Ghana Continued Traded gold and salt but also cloth and weapons Berbers- traders whom carried the products across the desert Camels used About 3 miles per hours, about 60 days to reach destination Spread of Islamic ideas through trade Literacy grew- study of the Qu’ran
Ghana became a rich and powerful nation, especially when the camel began to be used as a source of transport. • Ghana relied on trade and their trade was made faster and better with the use of the camel. http://es.encarta.msn.com/media_461532998_761558787_-1_1/Caravana_de_camellos.html news.nationalgeographic.com/. ../salt/photo6.html
Islamic Mosque in Ghana blankbluesky.com/ travel/ghana/ • After 700 AD, the religion of Islam began to spread over northern Africa (indigenous, polytheistic religions first) • Muslim warriors came into Ghana and fought with the non-Islamic people there.
Reasons for Decline of Ghana About 1050 A.D. the Almoravids from North Africa attacked Ghana. The Almoravids tried to maintain control of trade routes but were unsuccessful. Ghana would eventually come under the control of Mali.
End of Ghana Lived in luxury for hundreds of years Weakened by war and invasion Collapsed in the 1200’s
"The King . . .(wears). . . necklaces round his neck and bracelets on his forearms and he puts on a high cap decorated with gold and wrapped in a turban of fine cotton. He (meets people) in a domed pavilion around which stand ten horses covered with gold-embroidered materials…and on his right, are the sons of the (lesser) kings of his country, wearing splendid garments and their hair plaited with gold.At the door of the pavilion are dogs of excellent pedigree. Round their necks they wear collars of gold and silver, studded with a number of balls of the same metals." This is a primary source that describes the court of one king of Ghana. 10th century geographer Al-Bakri, quoted in Corpus of Early Arabic Sources for West African History.
Location – Niger and Senegal Rivers History - Founders were the Soninke people Government -Ruled by kings. Power would be divided between kings and village chief. Power would go to king’s nephew. Kings were considered to be half-gods. Kings owned all the gold and salt. Kings had huge army to help rule Religion – Indigenous religions. Eventually, Islam came from North African traders Economy – Controlled gold and salt trade across the Sahara. Also used iron ore to make iron tools and weapons Decline - Weakened by war and invasion - taken over by Mali Review Notes
Mali Empire [13c-15c] SALT GOLD
Kingdom of Mali 12th Century Defeated Ghana, captured capital 1240 Extended from Atlantic Coast to Timbuktu Wealth came from gold and salt trade Each village had its own ruler Ruler governed and sent money to the king of Mali
By 1235 the kingdom of Mali had emerged. • Its founders were Mande-speaking people, who lived south of Ghana. • Mali’s wealth was also built on gold.
Mali Ruler and Government By 1235 A.D. Sundiata would control the West African gold trade to bring about the kingdom of Mali. Mansa Musa was a capable Muslim leader who expanded the empire from 1312 until he died in 1337.
1. A powerful king named Sundiata ruled Mali from around 1230-1255 AD. He became known as a mansa, or emperor. • He led the people in conquering and expanding his kingdom to be as great as Ghana had been. TWO MOST IMPORTANT KINGS • 2. Perhaps the greatest king of Mali was Mansa Musa (1312-1337). He developed the gold and salt trade of Mali and his kingdom became very powerful and rich. • Mali had 7 rulers in the 50 years between Sundiata and Mansa Musa. Mansu Musa: Lord of the Negroes of Guinea. (Photo courtesy of History of Africa)
Mansa Musa was a Muslim; he built many beautiful mosques, or Islamic temples in western Africa as well as attending public prayers, and supporting holy men. http://travel.u.nu/pic/ml/djenne.jpg
In 1324 Mansa Musa made a hajj, or pilgrimage ( a journey to a holy place) to Mecca, which is a holy city in Arabia. • He traveled with 60,000 servants and followers and 80 camels carrying more than 4,000 pounds of gold to be distributed among the poor. Of the 12,000 servants 500 carried a staff of pure gold. This showed his power and wealth to the other people he visited. • After returning he ordered mosques to be built in the major cities of Timbuktu and Gao. http://bseleck.bei.t-online.de/timbuktu/img_tim/mansamusag.gif
Reasons for Rise The mansas or rulers of Mali would expand their influence over the salt and gold trade. Strong Mandingo leaders like Mansa Musa conquered neighboring lands. Islam united the people. Mansa Musa would create diplomatic and economic ties with other Muslim countries through a hajj (pilgrimage) to Mecca. Timbuktu became a great city of Muslim learning and trade. Reasons for Decline Power struggles between weaker rulers in the early 1400’s.
When Mansa Musa died there were no kings as powerful as he was to follow. • The great kingdom of Mali weakened. • Eventually a group of people known as Berbers came into the area and other people came up from the south to claim territory that was once part of the kingdom. • Although Mali fell, another advanced African kingdom took its place, the kingdom of Songhai. The Berbers still live in North Africa. This picture, taken in 1893, shows a Berber group. http://www.uchicago.edu/docs/mp-site/plaisanceplan/graphics/berbers.jpg
The Mali empire didn’t last long. Mansa Musa only ruled for a 25 year period after he died the Mali empire Wasn’t as “Awesome”. Not all of the later rulers were as mighty. The empire soon weakened. Maghan, Mansa Musas son took over and he couldn’t defend the city. It later declined because of its size. The Fall of Mali
Sundiata [1210-1260] “Lion Prince”
REVIEW • LOCATION - NIGER RIVER • HISTORY - FOUNDERS WERE MANDE-SPEAKING PEOPLE SOUTH OF GHANA • GOVERNMENT - RULED BY KINGS OR MANSAS. 2 MOST IMPORTANT KINGS: • SUNDIATA KIETA - LION KING - 1230-1255 - EXPANDED THE EMPIRE AND MADE IT GREATER THAN GHANA • MANSA MUSA - 1312-1337 - EXPANDED THE EMPIRE, MADE A HAJJ TO MECCA AND BROUGHT 13 TONS OF GOLD AND GAVE IT AWAY, BROUGHT BACK ISLAMIC SCHOLARS WITH HIM, BUILT MOSQUES • RELIGION – INDGENIOUS REIGIONS AND EVENTUALLY ISLAM UNITES PEOPLE • ECONOMY – CONTROLLED GOLD AND SALT TRADE CARAVANS; TIMBUKTU BECOMES A MAJOR CENTER OF TRADE AND LEARNING ALONG WITH DJENNE AND GAO • DECLINE - WEAK RULERS AFTER MANSA MUSA AND INVASION
Songhai Empire [15c-16c] SALT GOLD
Kingdom of Songhai Niger River Valley Land very fertile (yearly flooding) Islamic kingdom Benefited from Muslim trade routes Askia the Great- expanded the kingdom, 1464 Cities- Timbuktu and Jenne Created a professional army Gave total control of trade routes to Songhai Ruled for over 30 years
Songhai Ruler and Government Sunni Ali restored order in 1464. He did not convert to Islam but followed traditional beliefs. Askia Muhammad helped Songhai reach its peak of power by creating a Muslim dynasty. Askia Muhammad would take a pilgrimage to Mecca creating ties to the wider Muslim world.