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Complete Sentences. Subject of a Sentence – Answers “who” or “what” to the main verb of the sentence. . The subject is a noun or pronoun. The subject is never found in a prepositional phrase. The subject is never the words “here” or “there.” The subject might be “you understood.”

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subject of a sentence answers who or what to the main verb of the sentence
Subject of a Sentence – Answers “who” or “what” to the main verb of the sentence.
  • The subject is a noun or pronoun.
  • The subject is never found in a prepositional phrase.
  • The subject is never the words “here” or “there.”
  • The subject might be “you understood.”
    • Close the door. – you understood is the subject
    • Water the plants. – you understood is the subject
main verb of sentence what the subject of the sentence does
Main Verb of Sentence – what the subject of the sentence does
  • The main verb may show action.
  • The main verb may be a form of the verb “to be.”
  • The main verb may be a state of being – appears, sounds, tastes.
  • The main verb can never have the word “to” before it.
  • The main verb can never end in “ing.”
a complete sentence needs
A Complete Sentence Needs:
  • A subject
  • A main verb
  • A complete thought
    • This means that subordinate words have to be answered
sentence fragments
Sentence Fragments
  • A sentence fragment is missing something that a complete sentence must have.
    • People with loyalty for their country voted.
  • If the word “voted” was left out, the sentence would be missing a verb.
  • If the word “People” was left out, the sentence would be missing a subject.
  • If the sentence read, “When people with loyalty for their country vote,” the word “When” would not be answered, so there would be not complete thought.
fixing fragments
Fixing Fragments
  • Add the missing part of the sentence.
    • “Runs two miles every morning,” can be corrected by writing, “Steve runs two miles every morning.”
    • “The soft, furry kitten,” can be corrected by writing, “The soft, furry kitten was in the basket.”
  • Add the fragment to a complete sentence.
    • “He did not give us a number. An exact number,” can be corrected to, “He did not give us an exact number.”
more fragments to watch
More Fragments to Watch
  • If the word begins with a subordinator, answer it.
    • “Because I could not find my keys,” can be corrected by answering “because.” The sentence, “Because I could not find my keys, I was late for work,” answers the question.
    • “When we went to the movies,” can be corrected by answering “when.” The sentence, “When we went to the movies, I skipped the popcorn,” answers the question.
common subordinators that lead to fragments
After

Although

As

As if

As long as

As soon as

As though

Because

Before

Even though

How

If

In order that

For example

So that

That

Till

Unless

Until

What

Common Subordinators that Lead to Fragments
  • Whatever
  • When
  • Where
  • Whether
  • Which
  • Whichever
  • Who
  • Whoever
  • Why
for example for instance
For Example, For Instance
  • When giving extra detail, make sure that examples are added to a sentence. For example, ideas in a brainstorm. This fragment can be corrected by writing, “When giving extra details, for example, ideas in a brainstorm, make sure that the examples are added to a complete sentence.
fragments with verb forms that cannot be the main verb
Fragments with Verb Forms that Cannot Be the Main Verb
  • -ing verbs cannot be the main verb of the sentence.
    • “Bill going to the gym after school,” can be corrected by adding a form of the verb “to be.”
    • “Bill is going to the gym after school,” is correct.
    • “Going to the gym, Bill met his girlfriend,” is also correct because it was added to a complete sentence.
  • “to + verb” cannot be the main verb of the sentence.
    • Fix this the same way –ing verbs are corrected.
      • Add a linking verb as the main verb
      • Attach to a full sentence.
let s fix these fragments
Let’s Fix These Fragments
  • Howie Mandel pointed at the model. Who was holding the million dollar case. Is this correct?
  • No – “Who was holding the million dollar case has a subordinator, who, that must be answered. How do we fix it?
  • Howie Mandel pointed at the model who was holding the million dollar case.
fix these on your own is the sentence group a fragment or correct
Fix These On Your Own – Is the sentence group a fragment or correct?
  • The dog ran around the yard and finally caught the ball.
  • When the attendant filled the gas tank. He spilled gas all over the side of the new Mercedes.
  • Because the meal was so hot. Jake decided to let it sit for five minutes before eating it.
  • She graduated from college with high honors. Even though she began school with a rocky start.
  • Although the instructor warned the class of an important exam, the students neglected to study the steps in the scientific method.
  • Numerous murders in Philadelphia have recently occurred. Actually, hundreds.
and the answers are
And the Answers Are…
  • The dog ran around the yard and finally caught the ball. – This is correct as it is!
  • When the attendant filled the gas tank, he spilled gas all over the side of the new Mercedes. – When needs to be answered – attach to the other sentence to fix it.
  • Because the meal was so hot, Jake decided to let it sit for five minutes before eating it. – Because needs to be answered – attach to the other sentence to fix it.
  • She graduated from college with high honors even though she began school with a rocky start. – Even though has to be answered – attach the fragment to the preceding sentence.
  • Although the instructor warned the class of an important exam, the students neglected to study the steps in the scientific method. – This is correct as it is!
  • Numerous murders have occurred recently in Philadelphia. Actually, hundreds. – This is an afterthought – incorporate it into the sentence: Numerous murder, actually hundreds of murders, have occurred recently in Philadelphia.
fused sentences
Fused Sentences
  • Two sentences that have been run together without the proper punctuation are referred to as fused sentences.
    • Examples:
      • Making the wedding cake was difficult it took a full day to decorate it.
      • My aunt is going to New York she wants to visit Ground Zero.
ways to fix a fused sentence
Ways to Fix a Fused Sentence
  • Add a period and begin the new sentence with a capital letter.
    • Making the wedding cake was difficult. It took a full day to decorate it.
  • Use a comma and a coordinate conjunction to join the two sentences.
    • The “FAN BOYS” are the only words strong enough to hold two sentences together in one sentence with only a comma: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so.
    • Making the wedding cake was difficult, for it took a full day to decorate it.
more ways to fix a fused sentence
More Ways to Fix a Fused Sentence
  • Use a semicolon
    • Only use a semicolon if the two sentences are very closely related.
      • My aunt is going to New York; she wants to visit Ground Zero.
  • Use a semicolon and a conjunctive adverb with a comma
    • However, therefore, furthermore, moreover are conjunctive adverbs
      • Baking the wedding cake was difficult; moreover, it took a full day to decorate it.
one more way to fix fused sentences
One More Way to Fix Fused Sentences
  • Use a subordinator
    • Because making the wedding cake was difficult, it took a full day to decorate it.
    • Since my aunt is going to New York, she wants to visit Ground Zero.
practice fixing fused sentences
Practice Fixing Fused Sentences
  • The question of the source of UFOs has been a matter of conjecture for many years, indeed, people have argued about this subject, movies have been made, and scientists have spent time investigating such claims.
  • Indeed is not a coordinate conjunction – it is not strong enough to hold the two sentences apart. One way to correct it is: The question of the source of UFOs has been a matter of conjecture for many years; indeed, people have argued about this subject, movies have been made, and scientists have spent time investigating such claims.
are these sentences correct or fused decide and correct the errors
Are These Sentences Correct or Fused? Decide and Correct the Errors
  • It was about 2:00 in the morning I was still wide awake.
  • I could not wait I was finally about to embark on my journey to Los Angeles.
  • I arrived at the airport very early and was the first one of the group there.
  • When the group began to arrive, I realized that there were just a few people I knew there were some people I never met before.
  • Overall this seemed to be an interesting group it was going to be amazing discovering L.A. with them.
suggested corrections there is always more than one way to fix a fused sentence
Suggested Corrections (there is always more than one way to fix a fused sentence)
  • It was about 2:00 in the morning, and I was still wide awake.
  • I could not wait! I was finally about to embark on my journey to Los Angeles.
  • I arrived at the airport very early and was the first one of the group there. – This is correct as it is.
  • When the group began to arrive, I realized that there were just a few people I knew, for there were some people I never met before.
  • Overall this seemed to be an interesting group, and it was going to be amazing discovering L.A. with them.
comma splices
Comma Splices
  • Comma splices are sentences where a comma has been used to hold two sentences apart. The comma is not strong enough to do this.
  • A sentence cannot be a comma splice unless a comma has been used incorrectly.
    • The assignment was easy, it only took a couple of hours to complete.
    • My cousin is visiting Arizona, she wants to see the Grand Canyon
fixing comma splices
Fixing Comma Splices
  • Comma splices are specific types of fused sentences.
  • Fix comma splices the same way that fused sentences are corrected.
credits and sources
Credits and Sources
  • Wingersky, Joy; Boerner, Jan; and Holguin-Balogh, Diana. Writing Paragraphs and Essays 2nd Ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing, 1995.