Complete Sentences Complete Sentences Clauses Fragments Run-On Sentences
Complete Sentences • A complete sentence has a subject and a predicate (a clause) that work together to make a complete thought. Bobby smiled until he thought his face would crack.
Clauses • A clause is a group of words with a subject and a verb • Most clauses have further information after the verb
Two Types of Clauses • Independent clause (Main clause) • Can stand alone as a sentence • Can be joined to another clause • Fred filled a cardboard tube with gunpowder. • Dependent clause (Subordinate clause) • Cannot stand alone as a sentence • Must be joined to an independent clause • Becausehe wanted to make his own firecrackers. A word that joins clauses is a conjunction
Fragment Sentences • A SENTENCE FRAGMENT fails to be a sentence in the sense that it cannot stand by itself.
Fragment Sentences • may locate something in time and place, but lack a subject-verb relationship. Last Saturday after the ballgame at the ice cream shop.
Fragment Sentences • may describe something, but have no subject-verb relationship. Shooting just before the buzzer rang and hoping to score the winning point.
Fragment Sentences • may have most of the makings of a sentence but still be missing an important part of a verb string. Some of the girls going together to the mall.
Fragment Sentences • may have a subject-verb relationship, but cannot stand by itself. Even though she was the prettiest girl and had a great talent presentation.
Fragments • Fragments look like sentences but are missing a subject or a verb, or they are put together incorrectly.
Correcting Fragments • Subjects or verbs can be added • Fragments can be joined together • All of the following are correct • With his disposable lighter in his hand, he told everyone to get out of the way. Then he lit the fuse. • Pulling out his disposable lighter, Fred told everyone to get out of the way before he lit the fuse. • He pulled out his disposable lighter. Fred told everyone to get out of the way and then he lit the fuse.
Run-On Sentences • A RUN-ON SENTENCE (sometimes called a fused sentence) has at least two parts, either one of which can stand by itself, but the two parts have been connected together with one or two words instead of becoming two sentences.
Run-On Sentences • Remember: The length of a sentence really has nothing to do with whether a sentence is a run-on or not; even a very short sentence could be a run-on. The books are heavy don’t carry them. The books are heavy. Don’t carry them.
Run-On Sentences • When two clauses are connected by only a comma, they are a run-on sentence that is called a comma-splice. The books are heavy, don’t carry them.
Run-On Sentences happen • when an independent clause gives an order or directive based on what was said in the prior independent clause. The game is going to be very close you have to play your best.
Run-On Sentences happen • when two clauses are connected by words such as however, moreover, nevertheless. Mother packed my lunch today however she forgot to put in my desert.
Four Ways to Correct Run-ons • Join the clauses with a comma and a coordinating conjunction • And, or, but, so, yet • He wanted to put the lighter away first, so Fred placed the firecracker between his legs, and he didn’t throw it. • Join the clauses with a subordinating conjunction • Because, although, if, when, since, after • Because the fuse burned too quickly before he could throw it, the explosive blew up between his legs.
Four Ways to Correct Run-ons • Make the clauses into separate sentences • Fred fell down screaming when the smoke cleared we all expected to see a bloody mess. • Fred fell down screaming. The smoke cleared. We all expected to see a bloody mess. • Fred fell down screaming. When the smoke cleared, we all expected to see a bloody mess.
Four Ways to Correct Run-ons • Join two independent clauses with a semicolon (;)if they are closely related. • You may include a conjunctive adverb along with the semicolon: • however, for example, therefore, moreover, indeed, consequently • Fred hadn’t taped the tube properly and most of the force was released out the ends of the tube the explosion did direct some pressure against his groin. • Fred hadn’t taped the tube well and most of the force was released out the ends of the tube; however, the explosion did direct some pressure against his groin. Notice how the sentence is punctuated
Ready for a drill? • Is it a complete sentence, run-on, or a fragment? Read each of the following and click your choice!
Walking through the dark forest. Complete Sentence Fragment Run-On
Bob was running in the yard. Complete Sentence Fragment Run-On
This is my first ball game but I think we will win. Complete Sentence Fragment Run-On
All of the other girls at the mall. Complete Sentence Fragment Run-On
I have walked to school everyday. Complete Sentence Fragment Run-On
My arm hurts a little. Complete Sentence Fragment Run-On
A big crowd of people have arrived. Complete Sentence Fragment Run-On
Mother washed the clothes and she waxed the floor. Complete Sentence Fragment Run-On
What a day for a party! Complete Sentence Fragment Run-On
Even though it was late and very dark. Complete Sentence Fragment Run-On